The erupting scandal did not stop Nixon from winning the election. However, the Watergate investigation continued at the initiative of Congress. At the disposal of the commission created for the analysis of Watergate was a tape recording the conversation between Nixon and the head of the apparatus - they discussed the possibility of hushing up the case.
In January 1973, the trial of Watergate crackers began. The interest in the case has grown, the staff of the Washington Post published two books based on the investigation of the scandal. At the trial, criminal facts surfaced about the president’s closest circle: advisers, the attorney general, the financial director of the Nixon election campaign.
In early 1974, the U.S. House of Representatives announced the start of the impeachment proceedings. On August 5, at the request of the Supreme Court, audio recordings were released that confirmed that Nixon was aware of Watergate's hack from the start.
Four days later, on August 9, 1974, Richard Nixon resigned. Since then, the suffix "gate" has become, one might say, a household name for major scandals that led to the collapse of one's political career.
The most high-profile political scandals in the world
Watergate scandal One of the biggest political scandals occurred in the United States in the summer of 1972, four months before the presidential election. In one of the premises of the Watergate Hotel, five people were detained. They were caught setting up wiretapping equipment and filming documents from the campaign headquarters of George McGovern, a Democratic candidate.
Suspicion fell on the incumbent President Richard Nixon, who ran for a second term. Even before the Watergate, he had in his hands tapes of Democratic conversations obtained illegally, and one of the detainees turned out to be James Mccord, an ex-clerk from the Nixon team.
The erupting scandal did not stop Nixon from winning the election. However, the Watergate investigation continued at the initiative of Congress. At the disposal of the commission created for the analysis of Watergate was a tape recording the conversation between Nixon and the head of the apparatus - they discussed the possibility of hushing up the case. In January 1973, the trial of Watergate crackers began. The interest in the case has grown, the staff of the Washington Post published two books based on the investigation of the scandal. At the trial, criminal facts surfaced about the president’s closest circle: advisers, the attorney general, the financial director of the Nixon election campaign.
In early 1974, the U.S. House of Representatives announced the start of the impeachment proceedings. On August 5, at the request of the Supreme Court, audio recordings were released that confirmed that Nixon was aware of Watergate's hack from the start. Four days later, on August 9, 1974, Richard Nixon resigned. Since then, the suffix "gate" has become, one might say, a household name for major scandals that led to the collapse of one's political career. Hungarian President's Doctoral Thesis In 1992, Hungarian politician and Olympic Committee spokesman Pal Schmitt defended his doctoral dissertation on the Olympic Games. Twenty years later, he, who was then president, was accused of plagiarism. It turned out that his work almost completely borrowed the work of the Bulgarian sports figure Nikolai Georgiev. Schmitt was stripped of his doctorate, and three days later, the politician announced his resignation from the presidency.
Bill Clinton's love affairs The 1998 political scandal associated with the name of the 42nd President of the United States, Bill Clinton, received the widest response throughout the world. He touched on the intimate topic of relations between the politician and the young trainee Monica Lewinsky. In 1995, the girl got a job at the White House, where for the next two years she periodically entered into sexual relations with President Clinton.
The X-Game-Zet Case (1797-1800)
What happened. During the French Revolution, US President John Adams sent a delegation to Paris to resolve the conflict, which was caused by French searches of US ships bound for England. At the same time, three French diplomats demanded a bribe, refusing to negotiate. US diplomats refused to comply with their requirements and returned home. To explain the lack of progress in the negotiation process, Adams released the recordings of the meeting of American diplomats with the French. US citizens were outraged by the behavior of French officials, designated in the published records as X, Y, and Z. This incident led to an undeclared naval war between the countries known as Quasivoina. It lasted about 2 years. Taking advantage of this situation, Dr. George Logan, who lived in the state of Philadelphia, having no authority, entered into negotiations with the French government, proposing ways to counter the position of the US government.
What is scandalous. In 1798, less than 10 years after the adoption of the Constitution, US citizens learned that French diplomats refused to interact with their government through official channels, even under the threat of war. The persistence of such a situation in the affairs of international relations threatened to replace the rule of law in the young country with the power of people whose personal ties would determine the state’s policy. Upon learning what Logan was up to, the angry congressmen realized that the survival of the newly formed government was at stake. In 1799, the U.S. Congress passed the Logan Act, designed to prevent foreign governments from contacting individuals so as not to undermine government policies. “Any citizen of the United States, wherever he is,” the law says, “who directly or indirectly contacts the United States without corresponding authority, conducts correspondence with any foreign government, any official or agent ... in order to counter any measures The United States ... must be fined, or imprisoned, or both. ”
The Eaton Affair (1829-1831)
What happened. In the first two years of Andrew Jackson’s reign, his Secretary of War and good friend John Henry Eaton married Margaret “Peggy” O’Neill, the daughter of the owner of the guesthouse, also owned by Eaton. However, the woman earned a bad reputation. The Washington elite accused her of inappropriate behavior and profligacy. This scandal forced Andrew Jackson to dissolve the government.
What is scandalous. The scandal divided the Jackson administration into two camps: Jackson himself and Secretary of State Martin Van Buren supported the Eaton family, while most members of the Jackson cabinet took the opposite position. In addition, their wives constantly humiliated Margaret Eaton. Vice President John S. Calhoun also joined the Anti-Ton Camp. Partly because he opposed the protectionist tariffs supported by John Eaton. Unable to solve the problem through personal persuasion, Andrew Jackson in 1831 forced hostile cabinet members to resign. Van Buren and Eaton also left their posts to enable Jackson to appoint an entirely new cabinet. This scandal forever ruined the relationship between Andrew Jackson and John Calhoun, reinforcing the influence of Van Buren. The Eaton Affair is evidence that even seemingly insignificant and purely personal matters can have serious political consequences in the face of a mixture of political and moral issues.
Scandal with “Credit Mobile” (1872)
What happened. “Credit Mobilier, the Union Pacific Railroad construction company, used its own shares to bribe senior officials of the US Presidential Administration Ulysses S. Grant, including Vice President, Head of the House of Representatives and members of the US Congress. In this way, the company provided federal support for the construction of the transcontinental railway. The scandal erupted in 1872, but the events described took place back in 1867, before Grant became president.
What is scandalous. It was a vivid example of corruption and nepotism that corroded the US power structures. The Credit Mobilie scandal discredited the Ulysses S. Grant Administration, although the president himself was not implicated in the corruption scheme. As a result, confidence in the current policy of protecting the rights of blacks suffering from white terror in the southern United States, after the civil war, was undermined.
Teapot Dome (1921-1923)
What happened. Albert Fall, secretary of the interior in President Warren G. Harding’s office, secretly received several hundred thousand dollars from a private company in the form of freedom bonds in exchange for leasing the Teapot Dome strategic oil storage facility in Wyoming. This oil storage used to belong to the US Navy. Albert Fall became the first cabinet member to go to jail due to unlawful acts related to the performance of official duties.
What is scandalous. This scandal literally destroyed the entire administration of John Harding, negatively affecting the fate of all his closest friends. Government officials did not use the power they gained to defend national interests, but to enrich themselves.
The name of Harding has become synonymous with nepotism and corruption. The president did not save his personal secret. It turned out that he had a lover. The Teapot Dome scandal put such pressure on President John Harding that he died of a heart attack right at the workplace.
What happened. Tape recordings showed that President Richard Nixon and his chief advisers tried to hide the fact of illegal entry into the office of the National Committee of the Democratic Party in the Watergate complex, Washington, DC. Nixon resigned without waiting for impeachment. He became the first US president to voluntarily resign. Some of his associates, including the White House lawyer, the chief of the campaign headquarters, and the Attorney General, received prison sentences.
What is scandalous. In an effort to secure his re-election for a second term, members of the campaign headquarters of President Richard Nixon used administrative resources to attack their political opponents domestically. Richard Nixon and his entourage tried to hide the facts of violation of laws and the US Constitution in order to secure a victory in the 1972 election. All three branches of government were involved in Watergate, two of which opposed the president, provoking one of the most high-profile political scandals in history. An important role in this matter was played by the press.
Iran Contra (1986-1989)
What happened. The scandal broke out because of a secret agreement on the supply of weapons to Iran, which involved the administration of Ronald Reagan. Deliveries were to be made through Israel. Weapons were required by the counter, Nicaraguan rebels who opposed the socialist Sandinista government. The deal was absolutely unlawful for several reasons: it violated the restrictions on the financing of the group imposed by the US Congress, restrictions on the sale of weapons to Iran and the general strategy of the federal government not to pay ransom for hostages. In exchange for arms, the Reagan government was counting on the release of US citizens abducted by the Hezbollah group in Lebanon in the early 1980s. When the scandal became known, Oliver North, an employee of the National Security Council, was accused of fraud and obstruction of justice and convicted of falsifying the timing of events before Congress, destroying government documents and illegally receiving a gift. The court dropped the latest charges in 1991.
What is scandalous .: The involvement of senior presidential officials in sabotaging US Congress decisions through clandestine transactions / operations. Interestingly, despite the scandal, none of the high-ranking officials were held accountable. Many Republicans, including future Vice President of the United States Richard Cheney (then a Congressman from Wyoming and participated in an investigation initiated by Congress) justified the actions of the people of Reagan, claiming that they simply had no other choice because of the then position of the congressmen - democrats. The actions of the Republicans (in the Iran-Contra case) are quite logical, especially considering that the reforms of the state apparatus that followed Watergate gave rise to a whole generation of conservatives who zealously defended their vision of a strong presidential power.
Interview of the Prime Minister of Ireland
The stereotype of drinking Irish, of course, exists, but the prime minister’s act outraged citizens to the core. Demands for resignation were even voiced by representatives of the party to which the prime minister himself belonged.
January 11, 2011 Cowan resigned. But in addition to the “drunk” interview, the reason was also the rather difficult economic situation in the country.
The assassination of George Gongadze
In the summer of 2000, he informed his relatives of the surveillance that was ongoing. Everywhere followed by a car brand "Lada". Two months later, on September 16, the journalist went missing, on November 2 his headless body was found in a forest a hundred kilometers from Kiev.
The leader of the Socialist Party of Ukraine Oleksandr Moroz said that he has in his hands audio evidence of the involvement of the country's top leadership in the murder of a journalist (including Kuchma) made by presidential guard Nikolai Melnichenko.
Watergate / Watergate
Political scandal in the USA 1972-1974, ended with the resignation of President Richard Nixon. The only case in the history of the United States when the president pre-termly terminated his duties.
June 17, 1972, four months before the 1972 presidential election, in which Republican candidate Richard Nixon was reelected for a second term, detainees entering the hotel were detained at the headquarters of Democratic presidential candidate George McGovern in the Watergate complex in Washington 5 persons.
They tuned in the listening equipment and, according to some sources, photographed the internal documents of the Democratic headquarters. The connection of this incident with the Nixon administration has not yet been proven.
It is known that he really had films with illegally recorded negotiations of the Democrats. But that “wiretap” was obviously not related to the Watergate Hotel.
The investigation of the June incident and the accompanying public campaign against the president, which lasted more than 2 years, had active periods and periods of calm. The end of 1972, marked by the triumphant re-election of Nixon for a second term, was relatively calm for him.
In August 1973, Nixon refused to provide the prosecutor with comments about the government audio monitoring system and tapes recorded in the Oval Office documenting Nixon’s conversations with his assistants.
In August, Nixon refused to provide prosecutors with comments about the government’s audio monitoring system and films recorded in the Oval Office documenting Nixon’s conversations with his assistants. The president also ordered Attorney General Richardson to dismiss Attorney Cox, who made such a request.
This negatively affected his authority. Richardson refused to obey Nixon and resigned with his deputy in October.
On February 6, 1974, the U.S. House of Representatives decided to begin the process of impeachment of Nixon, but here Nixon persisted. He categorically refused to present to the investigation his films, citing the privilege of the executive branch.
However, the US Supreme Court in July 1974 unanimously determined that the president did not have such privileges, and ordered him to immediately release the tape to the prosecutor.
After the impeachment report was prepared for submission to the US Senate, by definition of the Supreme Court, previously unknown tapes recorded on June 23, 1972, only a few days after the Watergate incident, were made public. At them, Nixon discusses the Watergate story with his chief of staff, Holdman, calls it “fawn,” and then discusses how to prevent the investigation from using the CIA and the FBI.
After this publication, even for the most fanatical defenders of Nixon, it became clear that the president from the very beginning of events tried to obstruct justice in the personal and party interests.
Impeachment became a settled affair.
At noon on August 9, 1974, Nixon, having lost all allies and in the face of imminent impeachment, finally resigned, after which the new vice president, Gerald Ford, became president.
He pardoned Nixon "for all the crimes that he could have committed," to which he had the right, since impeachment had not yet begun to be considered in the Senate.
Farewell bow to Richard Nixon. the president leaves the White House, he signed a document on his own resignation. August 6, 1974.
President Richard Nixon leaves the White House, he signed a document on his own resignation. August 6, 1974.
The word "Watergate" is included in the political dictionary of many languages of the world in the meaning of scandal leading to the collapse of the career of the head of state.
Monica Lewinsky: Impeachment of Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton and Monica Lewinsky's sex scandal is a political scandal in the USA in 1998 that arose due to sexual relations between 42nd US President Bill Clinton and 25-year-old trainee Monica Lewinsky (in the office of the head of state).
Information about this and the subsequent investigation led to the attempt of impeachment of Bill Clinton in 1998, it came to a vote in the House of Representatives on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice.
In 1995, Monica Lewinsky, a graduate, was recruited to the White House. Communicating with US President Bill Clinton, she agreed to a sexual relationship, which lasted from November 1995 to March 1997.
Then she left the White House to work in the Pentagon and stopped communicating with the President. Monica told Linda Tripp, an employee of the defense department, who secretly kept records of telephone conversations about this story.
In January 1998, Kenneth Star launched an investigation, which investigated many other political scandals. Messages about the scandal appeared on January 17, 1998 on the Internet, on January 21, 1998 in the Washington Post.
January 26, President Clinton said: "I had no sexual relationship with this woman, Miss Lewinsky." “First Lady” Hillary Clinton publicly supported her husband during the scandal and stated that this story is a conspiracy against the President.
On July 28, Lewinsky, under oath, stated in a jury trial that she had sexual relations with Clinton, including oral sex, which could be corroborated by physical evidence (residual seminal fluid on the victim’s dress) and Tripp's testimony.
On August 17, Clinton stated in court that "he had an inappropriate physical relationship with Lewinsky." However, earlier in the Paula Jones trial, Clinton claimed that he had no sexual relationship with Lewinsky, which subsequently served as the basis for accusing Clinton of perjury.
Clinton became the third President to be held accountable, after Andrew Johnson, who was nearly dismissed in 1868, and Richard Nixon, who, fearing impeachment, resigned in 1974.
In addition, perjury charges prompted the Arkansas Supreme Court to suspend Clinton’s lawyer license and impose a fine of $ 25,000 on him.
Iran-Contra / Iran-contra
A major political scandal in the United States in the second half of the 1980s. It flared up at the end of 1986, when it became known that certain members of the US administration organized secret arms deliveries to Iran, thereby violating the arms embargo against this country. Further investigation showed that the money received from the sale of weapons went to finance the Nicaraguan counter-insurgents, bypassing the Congress ban on their financing.
This story has become the biggest foreign policy scandal in US history. Iran-Contras almost politically destroyed President Ronald Reagan.
In 1985, the US National Security Council decided to sell weapons to Iran. The piquancy of the situation was as follows: until recently, Iran, where Shah Reza Pahlavi ruled, was a strategic ally of the United States in this region. However, the Islamic revolution took place in the country, the Shah was overthrown, and the new rulers of the country were extremely anti-American.
In addition, revolutionary Iranian students captured the US Embassy in Tehran, taking several dozen diplomats and their families hostage. The US attempt to free the hostages by military means ended in failure.
Contra Rebels on Patrol
However, Iran could not abruptly break with the United States. America was the main supplier of weapons to the Iranian army, which at that time was waging a bloody war with Iraq (the Soviet Union sold weapons to Iraq). Iranians needed ammunition and spare parts for military equipment. Based on this, the Reagan administration decided to sell weapons to a hostile Iran, hoping in this way to help free the hostages. But the intrigue was not limited to this.
The proceeds from this deal were decided to be sent to Nicaragua, where the pro-American dictator Somosa was also overthrown shortly before and the power passed into the hands of pro-Cuban revolutionaries from the Sandino Front. Somosists (or “contra”, as they were called) waged a guerrilla war with the Sandinists.
The US administration could not use budgetary funds to support the contra, but the “extrabudgetary” revenues from the deal with Iran (totaling about $ 48 million) that were never taken into account were ideally suited for this purpose.
Ronald Reagan managed to keep the love of the Americans, saying that everything that was done was done for the good of America. Affected members of his team - National Security Advisor John Pondexter and Colonel Oliver North, who directly supervised the implementation of this combination.
In December 1992, US President George W. Bush signed an amnesty decree for the scandal.
The case of Whitewater, a development and construction company, was the first of a series of scandals that haunted President Bill Clinton and his wife Hillary. For the first time in modern American history, the US president was suspected of complicity in financial fraud.
In 1978, when Clinton was still the attorney general of Arkansas (he later became governor of that state), he invested his money in Whitewater. After some time, the company went bankrupt, and its investors lost more than $ 45 million. Clinton himself assured that his losses amounted to almost $ 70 thousand.
However, the complexity of the situation was as follows: as the state prosecutor and later the governor, he was obliged by nature to oversee the activities of companies engaged in such activities. Moreover, Hillary Clinton worked as a lawyer in a law firm that served Whitewater.
The investigation continued for many years, but came to the conclusion that the Clinton couple did not receive material benefits from this case.
However, by the time this decision was made, Bill Clinton was at the center of another scandal involving Monica Lewinsky, a White House intern.
1. The Case of Profumo
The married Minister of War got in touch with Christine Keeler, a model and dancer. The situation was aggravated by the fact that the 19-year-old lady was also credited with close relations with the naval attache of the Soviet embassy in Britain, to whom the girl could convey the secrets heard from John Profumo.
2. Prince Harry in a Nazi costume
Prince Harry was never quiet. This played a trick on him. A few years before the wedding, the paparazzi photographed Harry at a private party. And all would be fine if the young man at that moment was not in a Nazi blindfold.
3. The incident in Chappakwidik
His hero was Senator Edward Kennedy, who after a party on the island got into an accident with one of the guests of the event. The politician managed to escape, and the unfortunate Mary Kopechne did not get out of the car that fell from the bridge.
4. Silvio Berlusconi and the bunga bunga party
During the last politicians, who, among other things, are accused of fraud and relations with the mafia, he entertained himself from the heart. Rumor has it that at these events there were many more women than men. But most of all, the public was outraged by the fact that minor prostitutes were present at the parties.
5. Moshe Katsav and Sexual Scandal
The charges appeared back in 2006. The former employee of the presidential chancellery was the first to speak about the harassment of Moshe. In 2010, he was found guilty of two rapes and one case of corruption with the use of physical force.
7. US presidential election in 2000
Most controversy has arisen regarding the results obtained from Florida. Since George W. Bush won here with a very small margin, the team of Albert Gore (namely, he was considered the favorite of this region) insisted on the recount of votes throughout the state.
11. Fake birth certificate of Barack Obama
Some experts expressed the opinion that in fact the then president of the United States was not born in America. And this means that he does not have the right to lead the country. On the Internet, there were even photos of Obama’s birth certificate with “wrong” data, but it was later proved that it was a fake.
12. Bill Clinton and Monica Lewinsky
One of the most high-profile sex scandals, which was attended by President Clinton and White House employee Lewinsky. The couple denied the connection for a long time, but in the end there was overwhelming evidence to the contrary.
14. E-mail scandal Hillary Clinton
The problem is that Hillary used her own mail server for both personal and official correspondence. This means that she had 100% control over her letters and could choose which information to share with the state and which not.
16. The case of Georgy Gongadze
The headless body of the journalist was found in a forest near Kiev. A few years later, the killers were still planted, but the customers (who could have belonged and most likely belonged to the political elite), according to the public, went unpunished.