The biggest fires in Russia are a topic that knows no boundaries. Because it is possible to determine how big a fire is, not only by the number of burned property or material values, but also by the number of claimed human lives. Sometimes with a small fire, up to hundreds of people die. So, such a disaster can be classified as large and tragic. Several recent tragedies have been heard. But people in their ages, for example, did not forget how the Rossiya Hotel in Moscow, which was already demolished today, was burning.
Fire at the Russia Hotel
This tragedy claimed the lives of 42 people. 52 people were hospitalized with varying degrees of burns and poisoning. Of these, 13 are members of the fire department. The most interesting thing is that several floors burned simultaneously: 5, 11 and 12, located in the northern building. The tragedy occurred in 1977 in the month of February 25th.
The fire department did not establish the cause of the fire. Or maybe they hid her. But the version was as follows - the fire occurred from a soldering iron, which they forgot to turn off in the technical room. Two people were convicted: the chief and the engineer of the low-voltage system.
Now about the most severe fires in Russia that occurred recently.
Hotel "Russia" after the fire
Fire in the shopping center "Winter Cherry" Kemerovo
A tragedy where many children died. But in the courtyard of the 21st century. It was a day off (March 25, 2018), so a lot of people gathered in the center to spend leisure time. They came as whole families, many of which were never able to leave the building.
The fire started at 1 p.m. Moscow time. It was not possible to put out the fire for many hours until the roof structure collapsed. It turned out that the building was put into operation with fire safety violations. But even in the process of its use, few people paid attention to this system.
A criminal case has been opened for five people. One of them is an employee of a private security company, who escaped as soon as he received a signal about the start of a fire. He turned off the warning system, thereby a large number of people never received any information. This man is wanted today.
But, as practice shows, the biggest fires begin not only through the fault of tenants or property owners. Where the inspection authorities looked when they took the Winter Cherry into operation. Where the fire control looked. Why do not they answer.
In this fire, 64 people died, 51 were injured.
Fire at the Lame Horse night club, Perm, December 5, 2009
The largest in terms of the number of victims of fires in Russia was the ignition of the Lame Horse club. On the night of December 5, 2009 in fire and smoke 156 people died. The fire occurred during the celebration of the eight years since the opening of the club. On this day, about 300 people gathered in Lame Horse. According to the main version, the fire was caused by the careless use of pyrotechnics in the club. In the club's premises, a firework from the so-called cold fire was organized. Due to the lack of emergency exits, panic began in the hall. It was also hard to breathe due to suffocating smoke.
As a result, 8 people were on the dock: pyrotechnics Igor and Sergey Derbenevs, club owner Anatoly Zak, club art director Oleg Fetkulov, club executive director Svetlana Efremova, former head of Perm State Fire Supervision Vladimir Mukhutdinov, fire inspectors Dmitry Roslyakov and Natalya Prokopyeva.
Zach received 9 years 10 months in a general colony. Efremova - four years in a penal colony. Fetkulov - six years in a penal colony, Roslyakov - five years in prison in a penal colony, Prokopyev - four years in a penal colony. The court released Mukhutdinov from imprisonment by imposing a fine. Igor and Sergey Derbenevs received real terms, but were released from punishment under an amnesty.
Immediately after the Lame Horse tragedy, nationwide mass inspections for fire safety of distribution points for pyrotechnics, cultural institutions, catering and leisure facilities with a capacity of more than 50 people, and places for New Year's celebrations began. After the tragedy in Perm, all night clubs were checked. During the year, more than 18% of nightclubs were closed throughout Russia after inspections.
On December 9, 2009, the Perm Krai government decided to resign. Minister of Entrepreneurship and Trade Development Marat Bimatov, Minister of Urban Planning and Infrastructure Development Alexander Kudryavtsev, as well as Minister of Public Security Igor Orlov were removed from their posts. The head of the Perm administration Arkady Katz resigned.
The fire in the night club "Lame Horse" Perm
This tragedy cannot be classified as the “largest fires in Russia”. Because on the burning area it was a small fire. But it was in Lame Horse that the most people died - 111 residents of the city who came to celebrate the eight-year anniversary of the popular establishment.
But most importantly, the victims did not end there. In hospitals, a further 45 people died within a few days. At the same time, 64 citizens became disabled. That is, more than half of those present in the night club suffered.
The cause of the fire is the improper use of pyrotechnics. But the main thing is that no attention was paid to fire safety in this institution. Everyone knew about it, even fire control authorities, which were simply inactive. Therefore, at the end of the investigation, the top officials of the fire control of the region were simply fired. And the administration of the region in full force resigned.
The founders of the institution, employees who conducted pyrotechnic events, the club management and some of its employees were sentenced to different years. Fire inspectors were also convicted.
The interior of the Lame Horse club after the fire
Fire in a nursing home in the Krasnodar Territory
It is amazing how people in Russia treat the elderly and the sick. A nursing home should be a model of an institution where old sick people live the rest of their lives. The building was untidy, no money was allocated for its repair. There were no systems or networks responsible for fire safety. The nearest fire station was located 50 km from the village of Kamyshevskaya. It was here that the nursing home was located.
At night, there were 93 guests in the building, of which 28 people could not move around (they all died). Three nurses were on duty. The total number of dead - 63, of which one of the nurses who tried to pull the lying on their hands.
Seemingly, this tragedy cannot be attributed to strong fires. The building was small. But the number of victims exacerbates the situation.
Nursing home burns in the Krasnodar Territory
Fire in the building of the Central Internal Affairs Directorate in Samara
Recent fires in Russia overshadow the tragedies that occurred twenty or thirty years ago. But when it comes to big fires in Russia, they need to be mentioned.
The tragedy occurred in 1999 on February 10. Firstly, the fire completely destroyed the multi-story building. Secondly, the number of victims is 57 people. Many of those saved were in critical condition for a long time.
The culprits were not found, because no cause of fire was found. The fire just destroyed all the evidence. One of the versions is that one of the employees threw a burning match or a cigarette in the bin.
The burnt down building of the Samara Central Internal Affairs Directorate
Fire in the hostel of the RUDN Institute in Moscow
The institute, in which a large number of foreign students study, is a famous place. But the fire started in the hostel (No. 6) of the educational institution, and more precisely in the room under the number 203, where the Nigerians lived. Why the fire occurred, the investigation did not establish.
But the strangest thing is that the students themselves decided to put out the fire. They did not succeed. Firefighters were called in 40 minutes, but the fire was already raging everywhere.
The result is 44 dead, 182 injured. All students come from different countries.
The investigation was not conducted for long, the violations were obvious. Therefore, the leadership of the institute, including two vice-rectors, were sentenced to different terms of imprisonment.
RUDN University hostel building after a fire
Fire in a boarding school in Makhachkala
This tragedy is also not a mass fire in Russia. But the boarding school was for deaf children. Killed - 30, injured - 116.
The reason is the electric kettle left on. The director of the boarding school and his deputy were held accountable. But the court did not restrict the freedom of convicts. The sentence was conditional.
Fire in a mental hospital in Novgorod
Another tragedy that ended in human casualties. Killed 37 people. The reason is an unquenched cigarette that one of the patients smoked. There could have been more victims, but dispensary workers reacted quickly.
In this medical institution 58 people lived. 15 of them were bedridden, they were the first to be pulled out of a burning building.
The injured were transferred to one of the buildings of a psychiatric hospital. The dispensary burned down completely, in its place a new one was built. A large number of people made donations to restore the building. Today it is valid.
All that remains of the mental hospital
Fire in the shopping center "Passage" Ukhta
The fire occurred in July 11, 2005. The reason was established immediately - arson. Attackers threw Molotov cocktails through a broken window. The fire could have been easily extinguished, but inside one of the shops were gas cylinders that exploded. And this exacerbated the emergency.
The dead - 25, the injured - 10. The arsonists were found quickly, the customers were identified, the organizer surrendered himself. The first to receive a life sentence in accordance with the Criminal Code of Russia (RF).
Conclusion on the topic
Strong fires in Russia happen from time to time. The list goes on. The reasons, as practice shows, are many, but more often it is a failure to comply with fire safety rules. Today, the requirements for real estate in the country are being tightened, but tragedies are happening even now. Therefore, an important component to make facilities safer is tight control by the state supervision.
Lame Horse Club - 156 dead
On December 5, 2009 in Perm, as a result of the careless use of pyrotechnics, a fire occurred in the Lame Horse nightclub. 156 people were killed, 78 were injured. The cause of the emergency was non-compliance with fire safety rules: about 300 people gathered in a room designed for 50 seats, the ceiling and walls of the club were finished with combustible materials, there was no emergency lighting. In April 2013, the court sentenced the owner, executive director, art director of the club and the inspector of the fire inspector to various terms of imprisonment in penal colonies.
School in Chuvashia - 110 dead
On November 5, 1961, a fire occurred in a school in the village of Elbarusovo, Mariinsko-Posadsky District, Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (now the Republic of Chuvashia). The state of emergency occurred during a festive concert dedicated to November 7, the Day of the October Revolution of 1917. There was no separate assembly hall in the institution, for the concert the wall between the two classes was removed. Due to overcrowding (230 students and preschool children gathered instead of the maximum allowable 115 people), all emergency exits were blocked by desks and chairs. While the concert was in progress, a physics teacher in a nearby office, together with high school students, was repairing a mobile film installation for showing films after the concert. When trying to solder one of the parts, the teacher accidentally set fire to gasoline in a bucket, prepared for the projector tank, and then knocked the bucket to the floor. Flaming gasoline flowed into the corridor, a fire quickly engulfed the entire wooden school building. 110 people died: 106 children aged 3 to 15 years and four teachers. The school principal S. Yarukin and physics teacher M. Iritkov were sentenced to eight and ten years in prison, respectively.
Nursing home in the Krasnodar Territory - 63 dead
March 20, 2007 in the village of Kamyshevatskaya (Krasnodar Territory), a boarding house for the elderly and disabled "Priazovye" caught fire. Killed 63 people, 29 injured, the fire area exceeded 1 thousand square meters. m. The fire arose due to careless handling of fire, people could not be evacuated due to the lack of alarms, warning systems, and protective equipment. In 2009, a court in Yeisk convicted former director of the boarding school Galina Corvel and her former deputy, Yuri Bozhko, guilty of violating fire safety rules and sentenced him to imprisonment for 3.5 and four years respectively.
The building of the Department of Internal Affairs in Samara - 57 dead
On February 10, 1999, a fire broke out in the building of the Main Department of Internal Affairs in the city of Samara: according to the official version, one of the employees threw an outstanding cigarette butt. The fire quickly spread over the wooden floors of a five-story building built in 1936 and completely destroyed it. The evacuation exits were locked, the agency ignored the previously issued instructions of the State Fire Supervision. Many of the people in the building were forced to jump from the windows. 57 people were killed, more than 200 were burned and injured.
Fire at the Lame Horse nightclub - 159 were killed, more than 100 people were injured
The fire at the Lame Horse nightclub, which killed 156 people and injured more than 100, began on December 5, 2009 at 01.08. The fire area was 400 square meters. m. (total area of the institution - 500 sq. m). The fire was assigned the third category of complexity.
The fire occurred during the pyrotechnic show, the fire quickly spread to the entire room. A crush formed at the only exit from the club. People could not quickly leave the premises, most died from carbon monoxide poisoning and combustion products.
TFR opened a criminal case under Article 3 of Art. 219 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (“violation of fire safety requirements, resulting in the death of two or more persons”). A three-day mourning was declared in the Perm Territory. In connection with the fire, a number of officials were removed from their posts, the head of Perm Arkady Katz voluntarily resigned.
Anatoly Zaku, co-founder of the Lame Horse club, and Svetlana Efremova, executive director, Oleg Fetkulov, art director, were accused in part 2 of article 238 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Anatoly Zak received nine years and ten months of imprisonment, Svetlana Efremova and Oleg Fetkulov - to four and six years of imprisonment in a penal colony. The organizers of the pyrotechnic show, Sergey Derbenev and his son Igor, were sentenced to five and four years in prison in a penal colony and deprived of their right to engage in activities related to pyrotechnics. The co-founder of the club Konstantin Mrikhin, who hid after a fire in Spain and was extradited to 6.5 years in prison in a penal colony, as well as to compensation for moral and property damage to victims in the amount of more than 200 million rubles. Another against the co-founder and tenant of the club - Alexander Titlyanov, the criminal case was terminated, since he died from burns in the hospital.
Inspectors of the State Fire Inspection in the Perm Territory - Dmitry Roslyakov and Natalya Prokopieva, accused of negligence, received five years and four years in prison in a penal colony. The only one who escaped real imprisonment is Vladimir Mukhutdinov, the former chief state inspector of the Perm Territory for Fire Supervision. He was accused of abuse of power. His court deprived him of the right to hold government posts for a period of three years and imposed a fine of 70 thousand.rubles for issuing to the club an untrue opinion on compliance with fire safety requirements.
Fire in the hostel of RUDN University in Moscow - 44 people were killed, 156 were injured.
The fire, which killed 44 people, injured 156, occurred on the night of November 20, 2003 in a hostel of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia on Miklukho-Maklaya Street. The total area of fire exceeded a thousand square meters. Among the dead and injured are students from 39 countries of the world.
The ignition center was room No. 203, in which three students from Nigeria lived. Students initially tried to cope with the fire on their own, and only forty minutes later, when they saw that it was useless, they called the firefighters to the scene. When they arrived at the dormitory building, the facade of the building was already covered in fire, the fire burst out. Students and university employees, jumping out of the windows on these floors, were seriously injured - they broke limbs, injured the spine and head, some crashed to death. Those who did not dare to jump out of the window died in a fire. At the scene of the fire, 28 fire brigades and 50 ambulance crews worked. During the analysis of the rubble, the bodies of 42 people were discovered, two more subsequently died in the hospital.
The prosecutor’s office opened a criminal case under article 168 of part 2 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation “Destruction or damage to property through careless handling of fire, resulting in grave consequences”. Six people were found guilty of fire. Ex-inspector of the State Fire Supervision of the South-Western Administrative District of Moscow Pavel Lonin, accused of negligence, received two years in prison in a penal colony.
The remaining defendants: the vice-rector for administrative and economic activities of the university Yevgeny Kunitsyn, the acting head of the economic department of the university Gennady Ermolaev, the chief engineer Avedik Tsaritov, the head of the hostel Alexei Biserov, the chief mechanic of the university Vasily Zinoviev received suspended sentences. The rector of the university, Dmitry Bilibin, was also charged, but all charges were subsequently dropped from him.
Fire in the Kamyshevatsky nursing home in the Krasnodar Territory - 63 people were killed, 30 were hospitalized
A fire in the Kamyshevatsky nursing home occurred on the night of March 20, 2007. 62 pensioners died in the fire. 30 were hospitalized, one victim died in the hospital.
People in their arms were carried by the inhabitants of the village. The fire brigade arrived a few hours after the building began to burn.
During the audit, it became known that the fire safety rules were violated in the nursing home. The corridors of the building were narrow and littered with trash; the institution did not have the required number of respirators. Some of the employees did not undergo fire safety training; alarm sensors were not installed in the rooms. The management of the nursing home was aware of this, but took no action. Firefighters considered three versions of the occurrence of fire: faulty wiring, open fire, or a smoldering source. As a result, experts decided that someone just smoked in the corridor and did not put out the cigarette butt.
As a result, the court found guilty under the article “non-observance of fire safety rules that led to the death of one or more persons” by the heads of the Kamyshevsky nursing home for the elderly Galina Corvel and Yuri Bozhko. Galina Corvel was sentenced to 3.5 years in a penal colony, Yuri Bozhko to 4 years, respectively. The judge took into account extenuating circumstances: the presence of a minor child by Galina Corvel, and the advanced age of Yuri Bozhko.
Fire in the Admiral shopping center in Kazan - 19 people were killed, 61 were injured.
The fire in the Kazan shopping center "Admiral" occurred on March 11, 2015. Then 19 people were killed and 61 people were injured. Among the victims and victims were citizens of several CIS countries. The total area of the fire was 4 thousand square meters. m, a fire train and a helicopter were involved in the extinguishing, about 200 people were evacuated from the building.
According to the investigation, the cause of the fire was the use of a building not intended for this as a shopping center, as well as gross violations of fire safety requirements. In total, 703 people were recognized as victims in the criminal case on fire, 609 of them presented claims for compensation for property damage.
Now 12 people are being accused, including the head of the main company, the tenant of the shopping center, Huseyn Gahramanov, his deputies Nikolay Kaekin and Gulguseyn Najafov, the general director of the company - the owner of the building Robert Khayrullin, employees of the bailiff service and the Gosstroynadzor inspection, as well as five workers who renovated the roof of the building on the day of the fire.
On March 10, 2017, after the accusation was announced in the Kirov District Court of Kazan, Huseyn Gakhramanov partially admitted involvement in the crime, the rest do not consider themselves guilty. Currently, hearings on the fire in the Admiral shopping center are ongoing.
The fire in the Ukhta shopping center "Passage" - 25 people were killed, ten people were injured
The fire in the Passage shopping center in Ukhta (Komi Republic), which killed 25 people and injured ten, occurred on July 11, 2005. According to experts, the cause of the fire was a deliberate arson.
On July 0, 2009, the Komi Supreme Court sentenced the perpetrators of the crime - Anton Korostelev and Alexei Pulalin to life imprisonment. Investigators called arson customers Valentin Gadzhiev, as well as the brothers Farid and Asret Makhmudov. On October 15, 2013, the Makhmudovs were acquitted by the jury of the Komi Supreme Court, the republic’s prosecutor appealed the decision and filed an appeal with the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, which ultimately overturned the jury’s acquittal and sent the case back for reconsideration.
On March 24, 2016, the Security Service of Ukraine announced that it had detained an internationally wanted Interpol wanted person for “the suspected arson of a shopping center in Ukhta - the repeatedly convicted native of Dagestan.” As explained in the SBU, the alleged offender illegally crossed the state border of Ukraine in February 2016 with a fake Ukrainian passport. There is no data on whether Valentin Gadzhiev was extradited to Russia.
Fire in a nursing home, Krasnodar Territory, March 20, 2007
On the night of March 20, 2007, a fire occurred in a nursing home in the Kuban village of Kamyshevatskaya, which killed 63 people, another 30 were hospitalized. When the fire started, the staff could not find the keys and open the escape route. Local residents managed to evacuate several people before the firefighters arrived.
Investigators called an unlit cigarette the cause of the fire in the Kamyshevatsky nursing home. It was not possible to find out exactly who became the culprit.
During the investigation, it was also found that the State Fire Supervision Service repeatedly conducted inspections in the nursing home and revealed numerous violations of fire safety rules, but they were not eliminated. There were no alarms and warning systems in the building, no protective equipment was available, the nursing home directorate never instructed the staff. The evacuation routes were cluttered, which prevented the removal of elderly patients from the burning building.
On February 17, 2009, the Yeisk District Court sentenced the director of the institution, Galina Corvel, to three and a half years in a penal colony and her deputy, Yuri Bashko, to four years in a penal colony.
Fire in the building of the Central Internal Affairs Directorate, Samara, February 10, 1999
Victims of the fire in Samara ATC in 1999 became 57 people. The first fire report came at around 5:30 p.m. At this time, in a building built back in 1936, there were more than 250 people who were not notified of what had happened.
On wooden floors, fire began to spread with great speed. People died, suffocating with carbon monoxide, and crashed, jumping out of windows.
Fire fighting lasted more than a day. According to the official version, voiced by the investigation, the cause of the fire was an outstanding cigarette butt thrown into a plastic ballot box.
The criminal case was subsequently suspended.
Fire of the “Winter Cherry” shopping and entertainment center, Kemerovo, March 25, 2018
A fire in the “Winter Cherry” shopping center broke out on March 25 at around 16:00 local time. A few hours later, they managed to extinguish the open fire, but it turned out that this was not the end - later it became known about the remaining fires. During the fire, the premises of two cinemas collapsed, the fire area exceeded 1.6 thousand square meters. According to preliminary data voiced by the Mash telegram channel, fire safety equipment was violated in the building. Eyewitnesses say that the fire alarm did not work, the elevators continued to work. In addition, firefighters had to open part of the emergency exits and doors to the cinema halls - they were closed. According to the latest data 53 people died in the fire.
Children died at the closed evacuation exits. Everything that is known about the terrible fire in the Kemerovo shopping center
At the moment, experts believe that the cause of the fire was a faulty wiring. This version is a priority, but not the only one. Specialists also do not exclude the possibility of arson or fire due to careless handling of fire.
The Governor of the Kemerovo region Aman Tuleyev said that the authorities of Kuzbass will allocate 1 million rubles to the family of each victim of the fire.
On behalf of the Chairman of the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation, Alexander Bastrykin, a criminal case was initiated under Articles 109, 219 and 238 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (causing death by negligence, violation of fire safety requirements, resulting in the death of two or more persons, rendering of services that do not meet safety requirements). He will be investigated by the Main Investigative Directorate of the Investigative Committee of Russia.
According to TASS, four people have already been detained - the tenant of the premises, the director of the shopping center, his deputy for safety and another manager. In total, more than 60 people were interrogated.
Fire in the hostel of RUDN University, Moscow, November 24, 2003
A fire in the hostel of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia broke out on the night of November 24, 2003 in room 203, in which three students from Nigeria lived. At the time of fire, it was empty. Freshmen tried to cope with the fire on their own, but failed. After 40 minutes, they called firefighters.
When rescuers and firefighters arrived at the scene, the building’s facade was already in flames. Students and university employees died, suffocating from smoke and throwing themselves out of windows. As a result, 43 people became victims of the fire.
In fact, a criminal case was initiated under Part 2 of Art. 168 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation (“Destruction or damage to property through careless handling of fire, resulting in grave consequences”). The court found the vice-rector for administrative and economic activities of the university Yevgeny Kunitsyn (1.5 years in prison) guilty, and. about. Gennady Ermolaev, head of the economic department of RUDN University (3 years probation), Avedik Tsaritov, chief engineer of the university (3 years probation), Vasily Zinoviev, chief mechanic of the university (amnestied due to his old age), Alexei Biserov, head of the dormitory No. 6 (2 years and 9 months). conditionally), the inspector of the State Fire Supervision of the South-Western Administrative District of Moscow, Pavel Lonin (2 years in a penal colony).
Fire in a neuropsychiatric boarding school, Novgorod region, September 13, 2013
The fire in the men's ward of the Oksochi psychoneurological boarding school occurred on September 13, 2013. As a result killed 36 patients and a nurse, which helped bring them out of the fire.
The investigation established that the cause of the fire was the careless handling of the fire of one of the patients who smoked in bed.
In early February 2015, the former director of the boarding school, Saigidgosen Magomedov, and the former chief engineer for safety and labor protection at the institution, Alexander Kulikov, were found guilty of violating labor protection and fire safety requirements. The first received 5 years and 6 months. imprisonment in a penal colony, the second - 4 years in a penal colony.
Fire at the Passage shopping center, Ukhta, July 11, 2005
July 11, 2005 in Ukhta as a result of a fire in the shopping center "Passage" killing 25 people, ten people received burns and injuries. The cause of the fire was deliberate arson.
In 2009, two local residents - Aleksey Pulalin and Anton Korostelev - were sentenced to life imprisonment for the arson of the Passage shopping center. Investigators called arson customers Valentin Gadzhiev, as well as the brothers Farid and Asret Makhmudov. On October 15, 2013, the Makhmudovs were acquitted by the jury of the Komi Supreme Court, the republic’s prosecutor appealed the decision and filed an appeal with the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, which ultimately overturned the jury’s acquittal and sent the case back for reconsideration. Soon, the Makhmudovs and Hajiyev, who did not appear at the court hearing, were put on the wanted list.
Fire at Admiral Shopping Center, Kazan, March 11, 2015
A fire in a shopping center broke out in the afternoon of March 11, 2015. According to experts, the former factory building could not be commercial in principle and was operated with gross violations of fire safety. The source of ignition was on the roof of a one-story extension near the entrance to the shopping center. In a short time, the fire swept over 4000 square meters. m
More than 650 people were evacuated from the building. As a result of a fire killing 19 peopleOver 70 received burns and injuries.
In fact, several criminal cases were instituted. In the dock were 12 people. Among them are the general director of the company that owned the building, as well as his deputies, a specialist of the State Construction Supervision and bailiffs. They are accused of several articles, including “Forgery of documents”, “Tax evasion” and “Violation of fire safety requirements”.
After a fire in the Admiral, mass inspections were conducted in Russian shopping centers, as a result of which violations were identified: the absence of an automatic fire alarm, warning and evacuation systems in case of fire and automatic fire extinguishing, the absence of smoke ventilation, etc.
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