Wife - Azizmo Asadullaeva
Parents - Mairam Sharifova, Sharif Rakhmonov
Children - Ozoda Rakhmonov, Parvin Rakhmonov, Takhmina Rakhmonov, Farzon, Zarrin, Firuza Rakhmonov, Rustam Emomali
Emomali Sharipovich Rakhmonov (b. 1952) - state and political figure in Tajikistan, permanent president of the country since 1994. He has the title "Founder of Peace and National Unity - Leader of the Nation."
Birth and family
Emomali was born on October 5, 1952 in the urban-type village of Dangara, located in the Kulyab region of the Tajik Republic.
His dad, Rakhmonov Sharif, went through the Great Patriotic War, had two military awards - the Order of Glory II and III degrees.
Mom, Mairam Sharifova, was a long-lived woman, lived to 94 years old, died in 2004.
Emomali was the third son in the family. His older brother Fayziddin served in the Soviet Army in Ukraine. In the line of duty in 1959, he died in the Lviv region, where he was buried in the Zholkovsky district in the cemetery of the small town of Rava-Russkaya.
In the south-west of Tajikistan, in the Vakhsh river valley, there is the city of Kurgan-Tyube, here, after graduating from a comprehensive school, Emomali got his first job - at the creamery as an electrician.
In 1971, the guy was drafted into the ranks of the Soviet army for military service. Emomali entered the Pacific Fleet, where he served as a sailor for three years.
In 1974, he returned to the factory in Kurgan-Tyube. Then for some time he worked as a seller. In 1976, Emomali moved to his native Dangara and began to work on a collective farm, held various posts - the chairman of the trade union committee, positions in party bodies, for twelve years he was secretary of the collective farm government.
At the same time, Emomali studied at Tajik State University, in 1982 received a diploma from the Faculty of Economics.
In the early summer of 1988, Rakhmon was appointed to the post of director in the Dangarinsky district at the Lenin state farm. Here he worked until the end of 1992. From the state farm Emomali moved to work in the Kulyab regional executive committee as chairman. Before him, Jiyonhon Rizoev (a former personnel officer of the Internal Affairs Directorate in the fight against banditry and terrorism) worked at this place. Rizoev was shot dead as a result of a civil war that unfolded after Tajikistan gained independence.
In 1992, Emomali was elected to the Supreme Council of the Tajik SSR as a deputy of the 12th convocation.
After the collapse of the USSR, a civil war broke out in the Tajik Republic between the two main regions - Leninobad and Kulyab. During the fighting, the dominant force was gained by the “Kulyabs”, to which Emomali belonged.
In November 1994, presidential elections were held in Tajikistan. Rahmon won 58.7% of the vote, the opposition ignored the election and loudly announced fraud. But in early 1995, parliamentary elections took place, and the majority still sided with Emomali's comrades-in-arms, communists and former militants of the Popular Front.
In early 1996, in Kurgan-Tyube, power was seized by the rebels under the leadership of Mahmud Khudoyberdyev. Then they were going to move to the capital, demanding the resignation of senior officials in the government. Rakhmon made concessions to them in order to save Tajikistan from continuing the civil war, and dismissed the head of his apparatus, the first deputy prime minister and the head of the hukumat. The rebels were promised an amnesty in exchange for surrendering weapons. Then a spokesman for the Russian President called Rahmon’s actions “a victory of reason and common sense.”
In the summer of 1997, the Rahmon government signed a ceasefire with the united Tajik opposition, which ended the civil war. After this, Emomali managed to strengthen his own position in the political arena and eliminate all competitors.
However, Rahmon twice attempted. In April 1997, he was wounded by an explosion of a fragmentation grenade. The second assassination attempt took place in 2001, a self-made explosive device was launched by a suicide bomber, but fortunately no one was hurt.
In the autumn of 1999, during the referendum, amendments were made to the Constitution of the country, now the term of the presidency has increased from four to seven years. In November of that year, Presidential elections were held, in which Emomali won again with 96.9% of the vote.
During this period of Emomali's rule, it was possible to resolve the long-standing territorial conflict with China, which has been going on for about 130 years. He lost 0.77% of Tajik territory to the PRC in the region of the Eastern Pamirs. The country that Rakhmon inherited was still considered one of the poorest in the Soviet Union. After the collapse of the USSR and the civil war, poverty became a particularly acute problem in Tajikistan. 83% of the population lived below the poverty line, and the government developed a program to reduce it. By 2003, the poverty rate was already 53.5%.
In 2006, Emomali again won a landslide victory. He began this term of government by getting rid of all Russian in Tajikistan. Now the Russian endings of surnames fell under the ban, and his own, which earlier sounded like Rakhmonov, now became Rakhmon. The official initials no longer indicated a middle name. They also renamed settlements, mountain peaks, villages, streets, which had previously been named after Russian or Soviet leaders (Gagarin, Pushkin, Chkalov, Gogol). The country returned to national traditions, even the Koran was translated into Tajik, and now in Russian it was no longer possible to fill out a single business document.
In schools, Emomali forbade celebrating the ABC Book and Last Calls; children were not allowed to bring a cell phone to the school and drive to the school by car. Lush weddings and funerals are banned in the country.
Emomali Rahmon is quite a significant person in the external political world. Back in 1999, he was elected deputy chairman of the UN General Assembly. And in 2011, the European Council on Foreign Relations awarded Rahmon the title "Leader of the 21st Century."
In 2015, the Constitution was amended during a referendum, and now the term of office of the President of Tajikistan is unlimited. Emomali has every chance of becoming a life ruler of the country.
Spouse and children
Emomali Rahmon is married to Azizmo Asadullaeva, the couple during the marriage had nine children - two sons and seven daughters. The President of Tajikistan and his family have a lot of criticism from compatriots, the foreign press, and according to the published confidential documents of the international organization WikiLeaks, Emomali and his family members are deeply mired in large-scale corruption. There are many reasons for such a statement.
Emomali's wife has always been a housewife, and this is understandable, because the woman raised nine children. Now she prefers to regularly visit the Sogd region, where the government residence “Bahoriston” is located. There, at the Kairakkum reservoir, she is resting, undergoing various courses of medical and preventive procedures.
The oldest daughter of Firuza is married to Amonullo Hukumov, his father is the head of the Tajik railway. Firuza is engaged in business; in Khujand, she has a joint Tajik-Russian enterprise for the production of paints and varnishes, as well as a factory engaged in the production of plastic windows and frames.
Now in Isfara district of Sughd region, Firuza’s proxies are building a cement plant, the production capacity of which, according to the plan, will be more than a million tons of products.
Another daughter, Ozoda Rahmon, born in 1978, an “international lawyer,” graduated from the Department of International Law at Tajik National State University. After that, she studied at American universities - Maryland and Georgetown. Then she remained in the USA and worked at the Tajik embassy. In 2009, she returned to her homeland, as she was appointed deputy foreign minister. Ozoda defended her thesis on the rights and freedoms of women in Tajikistan, received the degree of candidate of legal sciences.
Ozoda is married to Jamoliddin Nuraliev, he works as First Deputy Minister of Finance and is one of the most influential people in Tajikistan. The couple has five children. In January 2016, Rahmon appointed Ozoda the head of the office of the President of Tajikistan.
Rahmon's eldest son, Rustami, was born in 1987. He graduated from Tajik National University with a degree in international economic relations, and attended courses at MGIMO. Rustami loves football very much, he played in one of the strongest clubs in Tajikistan “Istiklol”. His career began in the State Committee for Investments, where he headed the department for supporting small and medium enterprises. Now Rustami is in charge of the anti-smuggling department, and is also the President of the Football Federation of Tajikistan.
Since 2009, the son of the Tajik President has been married, his chosen one was the daughter of the owner of a large food enterprise in Dushanbe. Grandfather Emomali married couple pleased grandson and granddaughter.
At the end of 2016, the third daughter of Rukhshon at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Tajikistan became the deputy head of the Office of International Organizations. Rukhshon is not a newcomer to the Foreign Ministry; he has been working in this field for more than ten years. Prior to this appointment, she worked in the UK at the Tajik embassy. She lived in London with her husband Sokhibov Shamsullo, who worked in England as a trade representative of Tajikistan. Shamsullo is currently President of the National Association of Winter Sports of Tajikistan.
The fifth daughter of Parvin is married to Ashraf Gulov, the son of the Minister of Energy and Industry of Tajikistan. Her area of activity is the sanitary-epidemiological service and the health care system.
The sixth daughter of Zarrina connected her life with television, she is the announcer of the First National Channel.
Emomali Rahmon has been the permanent president of Tajikistan since 1994. After the constitutional referendum in May 2016, an amendment to the country's main law was introduced that removes the limit on the number of re-elections for the post of head of state.
From the year of election to the highest position in the country, the President of the Republic has the title “Peshvoi Millat”. The full title is “Founder of Peace and National Unity - Leader of the Nation”.
Childhood and youth
Emomali Sharipovich Rakhmonov appeared in a large family in the village of Dangara, Kulyab region of the TSSR. Emomali is the third son in the Rakhmonov family. The father of the future president, Sharif Rakhmonov, is a veteran of the Great Patriotic War, was awarded the Order of Glory of two degrees. Mom Mairam Sharifova is a housewife, raised children and housework.
Emomali Rahmon in his youth
The future leader of the nation, having graduated from a comprehensive school in 1969, got an electrician at an oil mill in Kurgan-Tyube. At the beginning of the 1970s, Emomali Rahmon served in the Pacific Fleet, and after demobilization he returned to the factory, and later worked as a seller.
In the late 70s, Rakhmonov entered the university in absentia, choosing the faculty of economics. Received a diploma in 1982.
Since 1976, Emomali Rahmon is the secretary of the collective farm in the Dangarinsky district of the Kulyab region. For six years, the young man grew up from the secretary of the state farm party committee to the instructor of the district committee.
In the summer of 1988, Rakhmonov took the chair of the director of the state farm and worked in office until 1992, until he became a deputy of the Supreme Council of Tajikistan.
Deputy Emomali Rahmon
Elections to the Supreme Council of the TSSR were held under the buzz of opposition rallies. Due to the abundance of red symbols, the rallies were called communist. Confronted the "red camp" by the Popular Front of Emomali Rahmon. In December 1992, the "war veterans" occupied the capital, and Emomali led the government.
In November 1994, a constitutional referendum and presidential election were held in the country. Emomali Rahmon won with 58.7% of the vote. For the updated Constitution 95.7% of voters of Tajikistan voted.
The United Opposition and its parties did not come to the elections and referendum, declaring the elections rigged in advance.
To reduce the degree of confrontation, in June 1997, Emomali Rahmon and his government entered into a truce with the opposition, giving her a dozen seats in the government. Islamists joined the state structures, parliament and army, but the struggle with the opposition did not stop. Two attempts were made on the leader. The first in April 1997 in Khujand: a grenade flew into the presidential motorcade. In November 2001, a terrorist fired explosives near a rostrum in Khujand where the head of state was speaking. Emomali Rahmon was not injured in either the first or second cases.
In the winter of 1997, Colonel Mahmud Khudoyberdyev, one of the former leaders of the Popular Front, raised a rebellion, which was supported in Uzbekistan. Emomali Rakhmonov suppressed the rebellion and set about eliminating yesterday’s comrades-in-arms and influential oppositionists.
In 2003, the former head of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Tajikistan, Yakub Salimov, was detained in Moscow and extradited to his homeland, where he was sentenced to 15 years in a maximum security prison.
It is noteworthy that Yakub Salimov saved President Rahmon during the first assassination attempt. Salimov pushed the president away and covered himself with fragments from his body. Emomali Rahmon thanked said in a televised address that he and his children will forever remember Yakub Salimov. But 6 years after the assassination attempt, Salimov, who was appointed Tajik ambassador to Turkey, was accused of abuse of power, arms trafficking and attempted coup. The ambassador was arrested in Moscow, where he fled.
And in December 2004, the second opponent Emomali Rakhmon, the head of the Tajik Democratic Party, Mahmadruzi Iskandarov, was arrested in Moscow. After four months in jail, he was released, but in the spring of next year Iskandarov received 23 years in prison.
The "misfire" happened only with the former Minister of Commerce Khabibullo Nasrulloyev. At the request of the Tajik prosecutor’s office, he was detained in Moscow, but the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation refused to extradite Iskandarov to the authorities of the republic. At home, he was accused of involvement in illegal armed groups that threatened to overthrow state power in Tajikistan. Previously, Nasrulloev was a supporter of the Popular Front and an associate of Rakhmonov, but in the presidential election he supported the rival Abdumalik Abdulodzhonov.
After the elimination of the most ardent opposition, Emomali Rahmon took up the consolidation of power. In 2003, he held a referendum, which resulted in amendments to the constitution. The leader of the nation received the right to run for president in 2006 and occupy the presidency for another two 7-year terms.
In 2006, Emomali Rahmon won the next presidential election. In line with the “Tajikization” taking place in the republic, Russian endings of surnames were banned. So Rakhmonov became Rakhmon and the "compartment" middle name. The period of a return to folk traditions and the old way began. The Islamic Quran was translated into Tajik, and in 2009 they adopted a decree that the Tajik language is the only possible one in business use. The Russian language, despite the promises of Emomali Rakhmon, was "out of work."
In December 2009, Russian media reported that President Emomali Rahmon hit the President of Uzbekistan. The Tajik leader confessed to a difficult relationship with the head of a neighboring power in Dushanbe, at a meeting with Tajik journalists, which discussed the construction of the Rogun hydroelectric station.
Emomali Rahmon with Islam Karimov
Journalists claim that Emomali Rahmon talked about disputes with Islam Karimov and even that he had a fight with the President of Uzbekistan twice. Russian publications wrote that Rakhmonov had been frank “not for the press,” but there were fifty journalists in the room who did not miss the opportunity to seize on the sensation.
On the second day after the publication of Rahmon’s interview, there were no comments from the press services of the presidents of the two republics, so there was still room for speculation.
President Emomali Rahmon
In 2011, the English-language weekly "Economist" in the compiled "Index of Democracy of the World" put Tajikistan at 151 steps as a state with an authoritarian regime. The economy of the poorest republic of the USSR, undermined by the war, which claimed up to 120 thousand lives and 18 annual budgets, gradually recovered. In 1999, according to the World Bank, 83% of people were below the poverty line. But in 2011, the figure decreased to 45%.
The country's economy is dependent on funds earned by labor migrants. According to the World Bank, in 2011, 47% of Tajikistan’s GDP is the transfer of remittances from migrants.
Emomali Rahmon and Chinese President Xi Jinping
Emomali Rahmon managed to resolve the territorial dispute with China, which lasted 130 years. China demanded the return of 28.5 thousand km². During a visit to Beijing, the President of Tajikistan ceded to China 1.1 thousand km² in the Eastern Pamirs. The political maneuver that resolved the territorial dispute was appreciated by the European Council, conferring on the head of state the title of “Leader of the 21st Century”.
In November 2013, Emomali Rahmon took the presidency for the fourth time in the presidential election. And in 2015, he ratified the law, which allowed him to hold the post of head of state for life.
Emomali Rahmon is married to compatriot Azizmo Asadullaeva. The spouses gave birth to 9 children: two sons and seven daughters. All occupy key posts in the country and are connected by dynastic marriages with representatives of the republic’s authorities. The eldest daughter of Firuza is married to the head of the Tajik railway. Rustam's son, born in 1987, headed the anti-smuggling department, today is the mayor of the capital.
Emomali Rahmon with his wife
Daughter Ozoda received a diploma from the University of Maryland. At the beginning of 2016, Emomali Rahmon appointed Ozoda Rahmon the head of the presidential administration. Married to the Deputy Minister of Finance of the Republic.
Parvin's daughter is married to the son of the Minister of Energy and Industry. The sixth daughter of Zarrin is the announcer of the state television channel. In 2013, she married the son of the head of the Communications Service.
Emomali Rahmon family
In his free time, the head of state is fond of hunting and reading books. He collects antiques. The ill-wishers and the opposition attribute to Rakhmon defamatory ties and reproach the presence of a “harem”. The lovers of Emomali Rakhmonov are called singers Gulra Tabarova, Nigina Amonkulova, Manizh Davlatova, national television announcer Munir Rakhimova and the daughter of the Minister of Defense of the Republic Diana Khairulloeva. Of course, the information is not officially confirmed and there is no evidence.
Photo: Emomali Rahmon
Emomali Rahmon now
In February 2017, the President of Tajikistan told reporters why he appointed the eldest son as mayor of Dushanbe. According to him, Rahmon Rustam Emomali is an experienced manager who “cannot be negatively influenced by”. Rumor has it that Emomali Rahmon sees in his son a successor to the presidency, which he will take in 2020.
At the end of February 2017, Vladimir Putin flew to Dushanbe. The visit of the Russian leader coincided with the 25th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the countries. At a meeting in the Palace of the Nation (according to the English version of Theestle.Net, which is second only to the White House), the presidents discussed trade and economic cooperation and signed a package of joint documents.
Emomali Rahmon's childhood and family
The future leader of the nation was born on October 5, 1952, in a large peasant family from the village of Dangara, Kulyab region of the TSSR. By seniority, he was the third son. Mother - Mairam Sharipova, father - Shari Rakhmonov, participant in the Great Patriotic War.
After graduating from secondary school in 1969, he worked as an electrician at an oil mill in the town of Kurgan-Tyube. In the early seventies (1971 - 1974), Emomali Rakhmonov served in the USSR Army, being a sailor in the Pacific Fleet.
In November 2010, US diplomatic telegrams published on Wikileaks revealed information about the Rakhmonov family. If you believe the leaked information, the head of state and members of his family are involved in large-scale corruption.
Emomali Rahmon in 2017
A telegram from the US embassy in Tajikistan dated February 16, 2010 says that the president’s relatives run the republic’s big businesses and own a bank. State exports are limited to aluminum and electricity from hydroelectric power plants, and two-thirds of the profits of the Tajik aluminum plant in Tursunzade are deposited in the offshore of the presidential company. Of these revenues, Rakhmon allegedly made a billion-dollar fortune.
There is no official confirmation of the information or a completed investigation confirming the rumors.
The start of Emomali Rahmon’s career
Since 1976, Emomali Rakhmonov confidently built his career at the Lenin State Farm in his small homeland. By 1982, he served as secretary of the board, then grew up as chairman of the state farm trade union committee.
Over the next six years (1982 - 1988), the young man was engaged in party work at the state farm: he was the secretary of the state farm party committee and instructor of the district committee. In 1988, he received the position of director of a state farm, which he held until 1992.
In 1992, Emomali Rakhmonov’s career went up: he was elected as a deputy of the Supreme Council of the XII convocation of the TSSR. This happened against the backdrop of spring opposition rallies that shook the capital of the state of Dushanbe that year. A meeting of his supporters was dubbed communist for the abundance of red symbols and old slogans.
Due to the threat of open armed confrontation, his camp returned for some time to Kulyab, where in the autumn of that year Emomali replaced the chairman of the Kulyab regional executive committee, Jiyonhon Rizoev, who was soon killed, allegedly for disagreeing with the expansion of the Kulyab party nomenclature.
At the same time, the first paramilitary groups of the so-called Popular Front were formed, the direct organizers of which were Emomali Rakhmonov and Sangak Safarov. It is the latter who is credited with eliminating the competitor of his comrade - the former chairman of the executive committee, Jiyonhon Rizoev. The city of Termez then seriously considered the possibility of armed seizure of the capital with the help of these troops.
In early December, at the XVI session of the Supreme Council of the TSSR in the town of Arbob, bypassing the constitution, Emomali Rakhmnov was appointed chairman of the Supreme Council instead of the retired Rakhmon Nabiyev. Then a “legitimate” coalition government was created with compromise opposition candidates.
The Council building at that moment was surrounded by armored personnel carriers and several cordons of machine gunners, so the resignation of the Council of Ministers, like the chairman himself, was inevitable. Armed forces drove their democratically and Islamist supporters away from Dushanbe, to the east of the state. Most of the ministerial portfolios and posts were predictably received by immigrants from Kulyab.
Emomali Rakhmonov was born on October 5, 1952 in the village of Dangara, Dangarinsky district, Kulyab region. He was the youngest of three sons in the family. His parents were hereditary farmers. Father Sharif Rakhmonov died in 1992, shortly before his son was elected chairman of the Supreme Council of Tajikistan. Mother Mairam Sharifova died at the age of 94 in 2004 as a result of a serious illness. After graduating from high school, he entered vocational school No. 40 in the city of Kalininabad in the homonymous district of the Kulyab region and graduated in 1969 with a degree in electrician. After graduating from vocational school, he was distributed in the Kurgan-Tyube creamery to work as an electrician. In 1971 he was drafted into the Soviet army and until 1974 he served in the Pacific Fleet in the Primorsky Territory, received the rank of senior sailor. After returning from the army, he returned to work at the Kurgan-Tyube creamery, where he worked until 1976. For some time he worked as a seller, and since 1976 he worked as secretary of the board of the collective farm of the Dangarinsky district. He entered the Faculty of Economics of Tajik State University named after Lenin in Dushanbe, which he graduated in absentia in 1982. After graduation, he became chairman of the trade union committee of the aforementioned collective farm, while simultaneously occupying a position in the party organs of the CPSU. In June 1988 he became director of the exemplary state farm named after Lenin in the Dangarinsky district, holding this position until November 1992. In February 1990, Emomali Rakhmonov was elected People's Deputy of the Supreme Council of the Tajik SSR of the 12th convocation.
Tajik Civil War
It is generally accepted that from 1937 and until the collapse of the USSR, Tajikistan was controlled by immigrants from the Leninabad region (“Leninabad residents”), although starting in 1970, immigrants from the Kulyab region (“Kulyab residents”), mainly overseeing the security forces, began to act as their partners departments. When Tajikistan gained independence, the state was headed by a native of the local nomenclature "Leninabad" Rakhmon Nabiyev. However, the powerful opposition in the form of territorial-clan and Islamic forces, which arose on the wave of transformations in the USSR and against the background of long-standing contradictions between the regions, turned to confrontation with the central government. Under their pressure, Nabiev was forced to retreat and resign, after which the power in the country passed to the opposition in the person of representatives of different clans and Islamists, representing the interests of other regions of the republic. The only force capable of resisting them was the Popular Front of Tajikistan, formed on the basis of the Kulyab-Hissar coalition, among the field commanders of which Sangak Safarov and Fayzali Saidov were especially distinguished. Rakhmonov was a staunch supporter of Sangak Safarov. Thus, two opposing groups formed in the country that had a clear regional-clan orientation: the former party-economic nomenclature (immigrants from Kulyab, Gissar, partly Leninabad and Uzbeks), supported by Russia and Uzbekistan, and the Islamic-democratic opposition (immigrants from Garm and Kurgan-Tyube, Pamiri). The fierce struggle for power unfolding in the country resulted in a civil war.
In early November 1992, Emomali Rakhmonov became chairman of the Kulyab Oblast Executive Committee, replacing the former cadre of the Department of the Interior for Combating Terrorism and Banditry (1948-1992). The latter was allegedly killed for calling to withdraw the Kulyab formations from Kurgan-Tyube and lay down their arms. According to Tajik television of the day, Rizoev was shot dead at the request of Sangak Safarov (according to another version, Sangak Safarov personally shot him). From November 16 to December 2, in the village of Arbob near Khujand, the 16th “reconciliation” session of the Supreme Council of Tajikistan was held, which accepted the resignation of Rakhmon Nabiyev and elected the “Kulyab” Emomali Rakhmon as the chairman of the Supreme Council. In an interview with Nezavisimaya Gazeta, Nabiev said that “he was happy to accept the election of Emomali Rakhmonov as chairman of the Supreme Council.” Representatives of the "People's Democratic Army of Tajikistan", which controls the capital, only two days later announced on republican radio that they believe the new leadership of the country, headed by Rakhmonov "Treacherous and communist odious" and that they will not let the new government, based in Khujand, into the capital. On November 26, the field commander and founder of the Popular Front, ex-chairman of the Supreme Council Safarali Kendzhaev and the Gissar group launched an offensive on the capital. On December 10, a special battalion of the field commander of the Popular Front, Minister of the Interior Yakub Salimov, entered the fighting in Dushanbe. . Together with him, Emomali Rakhmonov and members of the government arrived in the city. The detachments of Islamists and Democrats were driven out to the east of the country, some of them retreated to Afghanistan. The main hostilities have now moved to Karategin (Garm, Romit) and Darvaz (Tavildara). The dominant political force in the country was the “Kulyabs”, among whom is Emomali Rakhmonov. According to one political analyst, “Kulob won the war and became the master of the republic,” but at the same time he believes that as a region, Kulob did not gain anything from the rule of Rakhmonov.
On November 6, 1994, a referendum on the new constitution and presidential elections were held in Tajikistan, won by Emomali Rakhmonov, who won 58.7% of the vote (95.7% voted for the constitution). Opposition ignored the elections and referendum, and supporters of his only rival Abdulladzhanov accused Rakhmonov of fraud. In February-March 1995, parliamentary elections were held in the country. Most of the deputies were represented by immigrants from Kulyab, former militants of the Popular Front and the Communists.
On January 26, 1996, the commander of the 1st motorized rifle brigade, Mahmud Khudoyberdyev, seized power in Kurgan-Tyube. He moved his brigade to the capital, demanding the resignation of senior government officials. The next day there was a rebellion in the city of Tursunzade, where the ex-mayor Boymatov seized power. On February 1, Rakhmonov responded to the demands of the rebels:
|“We well remember what such demands lead to. In 1991-1992, they began in the same way: first with the resignation of individual members of the government, then the complete blockade of Dushanbe, demands for the resignation of the president of Tajikistan, and then resulted in a civil war. "|
However, Rakhmonov had to make concessions to the rebels. On February 4, he dismissed First Deputy Prime Minister Mahmadsaid Ubaidulloev, the head of his staff, Izatullo Khayoyev, and the head of the Khukumat of the Khatlon region, Abduzhalol Salimov (Tajik), Russian. . The parliament of Tajikistan, for its part, adopted a decree on amnesty for all participants in the rebellion, on condition that they surrender their weapons by February 7. On the morning of the next day, the rebel brigade began to return to its barracks and surrender weapons and heavy armored vehicles. On February 7, Rakhmonov signed a decree appointing Yahya Azimov as the country's prime minister. Russian Presidential spokesman Sergei Medvedev calls for president’s actions "The victory of reason and common sense" .
Amid the growing power of the Taliban in Afghanistan, a truce was concluded on June 27, 1997 between the Rakhmonov’s government and the United Tajik Opposition. Islamists joined state structures, including parliament and the army, which served as the end of the Civil War. One of the field commanders, Abdullo Rakhimov (Mullah Abdullo), who controlled the Darband region during the war years, refused to recognize the peace agreement and his supporters did not lay down their arms, but in 1999, at the head of a small detachment, Mullah Abdullo moved to neighboring Afghanistan (in 2009 he returned to Tajikistan with a hundred fighters and resumed active activities in the country, but in 2011 was destroyed during a military operation).
The rebellions of Mahmud Khudoyberdyev
On the night of August 8–9, 1997 in Dushanbe, clashes broke out between fighters of the special forces brigade under the command of Sukhrob Kasymov and Yakub Salimov, who at that time held the post of head of the Customs Committee of the republic. Against the backdrop of these events, Mahmud Khudoyberdyev again rebelled. In the morning, from Kurgan-Tyube, he moved his brigade on a campaign to the capital, which entered the battle with the presidential guard on the Fakhrabad pass, 25 km south of Dushanbe. At the same time, loyal “self-defense units” moved to Dushanbe from the west. Emomali Rakhmonov accused those who “Connected with the economic mafia, drug business and the underworld” .
On August 10, government troops cleared Dushanbe of Salimov’s formations, the next day they scattered "self-defense units", took control of the Gissar and Shakhrinavsky districts and captured the city of Tursunzade, and then moved to the stronghold of Khudoyberdyev - Kurgan-Tyube. On the night of August 12-13, Emomali Rakhmonov twice had a telephone conversation with Mahmoud Khudoyberdyev, as a result of which Khudoyberdyev agreed to return his units to the barracks and leave the post of brigade commander in exchange for personal integrity, provided that Rakhmonov issued a decree on relieving the colonel from his post "In connection with the transfer to another job." However, on August 18, hostilities resumed, soon ending in the defeat of Makhmud Khudoyberdyev’s troops.
In November 1998, Mahmud Khudoyberdyev again raised a rebellion in Kurgan-Tyube. The brigade under the command of Sukhrob Kasymov, the rebels were driven out to the north of Tajikistan, in Khujand. In Khujand, the team of Mahmud Khudoberdyev was defeated, the remains of his detachment and he himself disappeared on the territory of Uzbekistan.
Domestic policy: stabilization of power
On September 26, 1999, a referendum was held on amendments to the constitution, including amendments to establish a bicameral parliament and an increase in the term of presidency from four to seven years. For the adoption of amendments to the basic law of the country, 61.9% of voters voted. In late September, Rakhmonov was elected for a year to the post of deputy chairman of the UN General Assembly. In the November 6 presidential election, Emomali Rakhmonov won, gaining 96.9% of the vote.
Over the following years since the end of the Civil War, Emomali Rakhmonov managed to strengthen his own positions and eliminate his competitors from the political arena. The first assassination attempt was organized on April 30, 1997, when a fragmentation grenade exploded during a ceremony to celebrate the 65th anniversary of the local university in Khojent, as a result of which he was wounded. The president was then saved by Yakub Salimov, pushing the head of state in time and covering him with his body. Speaking on Tajik television, Rakhmonov even said: “Tajiks, you must remember who saved your president, my children and the children of my children will always remember this!” . However, very soon, Salimov, who was in Turkey as the Tajik ambassador, was accused in absentia of abuse of power, arms trafficking, the creation of criminal gangs and an attempt to organize a coup. Salimov moved to Russia, where in June 2003 he was arrested at the request of the Prosecutor General of Tajikistan and extradited in February 2004 to his homeland. A Tajik court sentenced him to 15 years in prison, finding him guilty of treason by conspiracy to seize power, banditry, etc. . In addition to him, in December 2004, at the request of the General Prosecutor's Office of Tajikistan, in Moscow, the head of the Democratic Party of Tajikistan, Mahmadruzi Iskandarov, was also arrested. , but the Russian side did not find grounds for his extradition to the Tajik authorities and he was released. However, in April 2005, he suddenly disappeared and soon ended up in a pre-trial detention center of the Tajik Ministry of State Security. In addition to them, such influential politicians as the ex-head of the presidential guard Gaffor Mirzoev, the former leaders of the United Tajik Opposition (UTO) and the ex-head of the customs committee Mirzohodzhi Nizomov were imprisoned.
November 8, 2001 there was a second attempt on Rakhmonov. Near the rostrum with which he spoke, a suicide bomber activated a makeshift device, but no one was hurt.
In August 2003, at the request of the Tajik Prosecutor General’s Office, the former Minister of Commerce Khabibulo Nasrulloev was detained in Moscow, whom the Tajik authorities accused of involvement in illegal armed groups with the goal of overthrowing state power in Tajikistan. Earlier, Khabibulo Nasrulloev actively participated in the activities of the Popular Front, but in the 1994 presidential election he publicly supported the rival Emomali Rakhmonov - Abdumalik Abdulladzhonov.
On June 22, 2003, another referendum was held to amend the constitution, approved by the citizens of the country. Among the amendments were permission to occupy the president not one, but two seven-year terms in a row, as well as the removal of restrictions on the age of the presidential candidate. One amendment states that "presidential elections for two consecutive terms begin after the termination of the powers of the incumbent." Thus, the previous presidential terms of Emomali Rakhmonov became zero and he could go to the next election as the first term. In the 2006 presidential election, Emomali Rakhmonov won, gaining 79.3% of the vote in the first round.
Emomali Rakhmonov took a number of steps, in his opinion, aimed at strengthening the positive role of religion in the education of the younger generation, against manifestations of religious extremism. The president, in particular, in 2010 called on parents to return their children from madrassas in Islamic countries, saying that “They instead of mullahs there become terrorists and extremists” . About one and a half thousand students from Egypt, Iran, Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates were returned to their homeland during the year. In December of that year, he initiated a bill “On Parental Responsibility,” prohibiting minors (with the exception of those studying in religious schools) from attending mosques during school hours (with the exception of religious holidays). The law, which introduced in case of violation of the penalty from a fine up to deprivation of parental rights, was approved by two houses of parliament.
In the 2011 World Democracy Index, compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit, Tajikistan took 151st place as a country with an authoritarian regime.
Even before the collapse of the USSR, the Tajik SSR was one of the poorest Soviet republics. The civil war in Tajikistan claimed from 60 to 150 thousand human lives, the damage amounted to 7 billion dollars, which amounted to 18 annual budgets of the country. The most acute problem in Tajikistan has become poverty. According to the World Bank, based on a survey of poverty in 1999, up to 83% of the population was below the poverty line. In order to overcome it in 2002, the Majlis Namoyandogon Majlisi Oli approved the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper developed by the government. In accordance with the method of assessing the basic needs of households, the poverty level in Tajikistan decreased from 72.4% in 2003 to 53.5% in 2007, and in 2011 it officially amounted to 45%.
The economy of Tajikistan has been greatly dependent on the funds earned by labor emigrants. According to the results of 2011, according to the World Bank, as a percentage of the country's GDP, Tajikistan became the leader in terms of remittances from migrants, accounting for 47% of the republic’s GDP.
In foreign policy, there are problematic relations with neighboring republics for water resources. During his presidency, Rakhmonov managed to resolve a 130-year-old territorial dispute with China. During his visit to Beijing in May 2003, he agreed to cede the PRC to 1.1 thousand km² in the region of the Eastern Pamirs, although initially China claimed 28.5 thousand km² (almost 20% of the territory of Tajikistan). On January 12, 2011, the Parliament of Tajikistan ratified the demarcation protocol of the Sino-Tajik border, according to which 1.1 thousand km² of disputed territories were allocated to China (0.77% of the territory of Tajikistan).
In August 2011, the European Council on Foreign Relations awarded Rahmon the title “Leader of the 21st Century” significance of fact? .
Transformations in a way of life of a society
In 2006, while visiting a rural educational institution, the president noticed false teeth from a school teacher. Seeing this, he said: “How can we convince international organizations that we are poor if our rural teachers walk with golden teeth!” After that, all citizens of Tajikistan were ordered to remove the golden dentures. Under the editorship of Talbak Nazarov in Tajikistan, seven books were published: “Emomali Rakhmonov is the savior of the nation” (covers the period from 1992 to 1995), “Emomali Rakhmonov is the founder of peace and national unity” (1996-1999), “Emomali Rakhmonov is the beginning stages of creation ”(2000-2003),“ Emomali Rakhmonov - a year equal to centuries ”(2004),“ Emomali Rakhmonov: a year of world culture ”(2005) and“ Emomali Rakhmonov: year of Aryan civilization ”(2006). The publications were dedicated to the 15th anniversary of the country's independence, the 2700th anniversary of the city of Kulyab and the Year of Aryan civilization, announced by order of the president in 2006.
March 21, 2007 Rakhmonov, speaking before a meeting of representatives of the Tajik intelligentsia, called for “It is necessary to return to our cultural roots and use national place names” . In particular, he decided to change his name and not be called Emomali Rakhmonov, but Emomali Rahmon. The President noted:
|“For example, in various documents, including international ones, my name and surname are called differently. Therefore, I would like to be called Emomali Rahmon, after the name of the late father. "|
In addition to the name Emomali, Rahmon decided to return the Tajik people to national traditions. By his decree, he forbade the registry offices to register children whose last names have Slavic endings “-ev” and “-ov”, allowing only Persian spellings to be used. In schools, it was forbidden to celebrate the “Last bell” and “Primer,” since, according to the head of state, these holidays are for parents “Because of their excessive pomp and cost, they are an overwhelming burden”, the children were forbidden to bring mobile phones to the classroom and come to school by car, because all this interferes with their studies. In the same year, Rahmon initiated the adoption of the law “On the Procedure for Rituals and Traditions in the Republic of Tajikistan”, which prohibits a magnificent wedding and funeral. This venture was initiated in order to save citizens' savings, because squandering ceremonies adversely affect the family budget and the state budget. According to the bill developed by Emomali Rahmon, a certain number of invitees is established, bride-shows, bachelorette parties and stag parties are canceled, as well as commemorative meetings widespread in Tajikistan after 20 days, wedding expenses should be shared equally between the bride and groom. Citizens breaking the law had to pay a fine.
In July 2009, the president introduced a draft new language law to parliament. In a television appeal on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the first language law, he stated: “The greatness of a nation can be judged primarily by the extent to which its representatives protect and respect their national language” . The head of state said:
|"Finally, the time has come when we, like other developed and civilized countries, should take care of the purity of our state language, streamline the inclusion of any new elements in the language on the basis of literary norms, and put an end to all sorts of distortions of speech and spelling."|
In early October 2009, the country's parliament adopted, and the president signed the law "On the State Language". This law establishes the Tajik language as the only one for communication with state authorities and administrations, while the Tajik Constitution proclaims the Russian language as the language of international communication. Commenting on the discussion around the Language Act, Emomali Rahmon said:
|“We are somewhat unclear about the hype raised in the media around the new law on the state language. The name itself suggests that this law regulates the scope of application of only the Tajik language. And the Russian language in Tajikistan has a constitutional status - the language of interethnic communication. And no one is going to review it. ”|
However, on March 4, 2010, the Upper House of the Parliament of Tajikistan adopted amendments to the law, according to which all laws and regulations in the country in the official press should be printed only in Tajik, as a result of which the Russian language was completely excluded from office work in Tajikistan. Senator and Tajik writer Mehmon Bakhti, introducing the amendments, emphasized: "Previously, such documents were printed in two languages - Tajik and Russian, now, with the adoption of a new law on the state language last year, this need has disappeared."
Under Rakhmon (Rakhmonov) in Tajikistan, there was a wave of renaming of settlements bearing Soviet and Turkic names. The city of Ura-Tyube became Istaravshan, Chkalovsk - Buston. Leninabad region became Sogdian, Garm district - Rasht. A number of villages and mountain peaks were also renamed. The streets that previously bore the names of Russian and Soviet figures (Pushkin, Gogol, Gagarin and others) received many new names.
The father of Emomali Rakhmon - Sharif Rakhmonov participated in the Great Patriotic War, was awarded the Order of Glory of the 2nd and 3rd degrees. Mother - Mairam Sharifova died at the age of 94 in 2004.
Brother Fayziddin Rakhmonov died in 1959 in the Lviv region of Ukraine "in the line of duty" while serving in the Soviet Army. He was buried in the city cemetery of the city of Rava-Russian, Zholkovsky district.
Rakhmon has nine children: seven daughters (Firuza, Ozoda, Rukhshon, Tahmin, Parvin, Zarrin and Farzon) and two sons (Rustam and Somon).
- The eldest son, Rustamy Emomali, was born in 1987, graduated from the Tajik National University with a degree in international economic relations, and was a student of MGIMO courses. He played for the Istiklol football club, headed the department for supporting small and medium-sized enterprises in the State Committee for Investments, then was appointed head of the anti-smuggling department and later became president of the Tajikistan Football Federation. In 2009, he married the daughter of the head of one of the largest food industry enterprises in Dushanbe. It was officially reported that the wedding was held within the framework of the law “On streamlining celebrations, traditions and rituals” adopted by Emomali Rakhmon, but the frames of the celebration fell into the hands of the Tajik opposition and were made public on K + with comments by opposition figure Dodojon Atovulloyev, who blamed Emomali Rammon for own law.
- Second daughter, Ozodaru en, graduated from the Department of International Law of the Tajik National State University with a degree in international law, then Maryland University at College Park, studied English at Georgetown University. For some time she worked at the Embassy of Tajikistan in the United States.as an attaché for cultural and educational issues, then headed the consular department of the Tajik Foreign Ministry, until in 2009 she was appointed deputy foreign minister of the country. Candidate of legal sciences (the theme of the dissertation is “Development of legislation on the rights and freedoms of women in Tajikistan (1917—2011)”). She married the Deputy Minister of Finance of Tajikistan Jamoliddin Nuraliev.
- The fifth daughter, Parvina, married Ashraf Gulov, the son of Sherali Gulov, chairman of the State Committee for State Property Management (and later Minister of Energy and Industry).
- The sixth daughter, Zarrina, works as an announcer on the Shabakai Avval state channel (Channel One). In 2013, she married the son of the head of the Communications Service under the government of the republic, Bega Zukhurov - champion of republican and international boxing competitions Sievuh Zukhurov.
In June 2012, Rakhmonov’s son-in-law (his sister’s husband) Kholmumin Safarov, who was the director of the State Enterprise of Forestry and Hunting of the Committee for Environmental Protection under the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, was killed.
On January 27, 2016, President of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon appointed his daughter Ozoda Rahmon as head of the presidential administration. 36-year-old Ozoda Rahmon previously served as First Deputy Foreign Minister of Tajikistan.
A leak of US diplomatic telegrams from Wikileaks confirms that Emomali Rahmon and his family are deeply involved in large-scale corruption. A February 16, 2010 telegram from the US Embassy in Tajikistan describes how Rahmon manages the country's economy for his own benefit. The Emomali Rahmon family runs Tajikistan’s large businesses, including the largest bank, and it “brutally defends its interests in business, despite the harm to the general economy.” The only export items of Tajikistan are aluminum and electricity from hydropower plants. The telegram states that most of the revenues of the state-owned TALCO company are deposited in a secretive offshore company controlled by the president, while only a small part of the revenues goes to the state treasury.
Orders and higher degrees of distinction
- Hero of Tajikistan (the only person awarded this title in life, and not posthumously)
- Order "Dostyk" I degree (October 4, 2002, Kazakhstan) - for his great personal contribution to the development of Kazakh-Tajik relations, assistance in establishing mutually beneficial political, economic and cultural ties between the two states and their peoples
- Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise of the I degree (December 3, 2008, Ukraine) - for outstanding personal contribution to strengthening Ukrainian-Tajik relations
- Cavalier of the Grand Cross of the Order of Three Stars (July 9, 2009, Latvia)
- Order of the Olympic Council of Asia
- Order of Merit, I degree (December 15, 2011, Ukraine) - for outstanding personal contribution to the strengthening of Ukrainian-Tajik interstate relations
- Honorary Order of the International Road Transport Union
- Order of the Crescent and Stars of the International Committee on the Suppression of Terrorism, Drugs and Environmental Crimes INTERSAFETY
- Heydar Aliyev Order (July 11, 2012, Azerbaijan) - for special merits in the development of friendly relations and cooperation between the Republic of Tajikistan and the Republic of Azerbaijan
- Order of the President of Turkmenistan “Bitaraplyk” (2012, Turkmenistan) - for a significant contribution to the development of bilateral cooperation between Turkmenistan and the Republic of Tajikistan, as well as great personal achievements in strengthening friendly and fraternal relations between the Turkmen and Tajik peoples
- Big Ribbon of the Order of the Republic of Serbia (2013, Serbia)
- Order of Mubarak the Great (2013, Kuwait)
- Order of Alexander Nevsky (February 26, 2017, Russia) - for his great personal contribution to strengthening the relations of strategic partnership and alliance between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tajikistan, as well as to ensuring stability and security in the Central Asian region
- Order of Parasat (March 14, 2018, Kazakhstan) - as a sign of wisdom and love for Kazakhstan .
- Order “To Dear People and Homeland” (August 16, 2018, Uzbekistan) - for his outstanding personal contribution to strengthening strong centuries-old ties of friendship, deepening good neighborly relations and mutual understanding, expanding the historically multifaceted cultural, humanitarian, spiritual and economic ties between the fraternal Uzbek and Tajik peoples, for great achievements in developing comprehensive cooperation between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, effective initiatives for ensuring security, peace and stability in the region
Medals and other awards
- The badge of honor of the Commonwealth of Independent States (October 5, 2007) - for his great contribution to the strengthening and development of the Commonwealth, friendship, good neighborliness, mutual understanding and mutually beneficial cooperation within the framework of the Commonwealth of Independent States
- Order of the Commonwealth (March 25, 2002, Inter-Parliamentary Assembly of the CIS) - for active participation in the activities of the Inter-Parliamentary Assembly and its bodies, contribution to strengthening friendship between the peoples of the member states of the Commonwealth
- Medal "For Strengthening Parliamentary Cooperation" (March 27, 2017, CIS Interparliamentary Assembly) - for his special contribution to the development of parliamentarism, strengthening democracy, ensuring the rights and freedoms of citizens in the member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States
- The badge of honor “For Merits in the Development of Culture and Art” (April 12, 2018, Inter-Parliamentary Assembly of the CIS) - for a significant contribution to the formation and development of the common cultural space of the member states of the Commonwealth of Independent States, in the implementation of ideas for cooperation in the field of culture and art
- Distinguished “Personalized firearms” (September 1, 2011, Ukraine)
- Gold Medal of the International Federation of Peace and Harmony “In Honor of Strengthening Peace and Harmony between Peoples”
- Gold Medal of the Parliament of the Arab Republic of Egypt
- Gold medal of Blokhin "(2010) - “For his outstanding contribution to the development of health care and the support of medical sciences”
- Gold anniversary medal named after Avicenna - “For his contribution to the development of national culture, the preservation of cultural and historical monuments and the strengthening of cooperation with UNESCO” .
- Medal "For the Promotion of the Development of Science" (2001)
- Medal "10 years of Astana"
- Gold medal of the Chinese Olympic Committee (2012)
- Ruby Star Peacemaker
- Peter the Great International Award
Prize and honorary titles
- United Nations Peace Prize
- Prize of the International Foundation of Writers and Journalists of the Republic of Turkey
- Honorary Doctor of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv (2008)
- Honorary President of the Central Asian Sambo Federation (2009)
- Honorary Professor of the Ural State Mining University (USMU) (2009)
- Honorary Professor of Moscow State University (2009)
- Honorary Professor of Oriental Studies at the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences (2009)
- Honorary Professor of Ufa State Petroleum Technical University (USTU) (2015)
- Taekwondo Black Belt