International trade makes up an important share in the GDP of countries. In 2017, 10.7 billion tons of products were transported by sea in the world, which is more than 3/5 of the global cargo turnover. The volume of maritime trade reaches more than 4 trillion. dollars annually, and containers handled in all ports around the world (including empty cargo, transshipment and handling of ports) are estimated at more than 785 million TEU.
The 50 largest container ports represent more than 25 countries, which demonstrates the global nature of the business.
A developed port network facilitates the timely and efficient movement of ships and cargo. So, for example, large container ships (up to 5000 containers), leaving the port of Rotterdam (Netherlands), reach Shanghai (China) in 18 days.
Asia is the largest trading region. In 2017, 4.4 billion tons of products were loaded in Asia, and 6.5 billion tons were unloaded.
The main trade routes are as follows (2017):
- Asia - North America (26.5 million TEU),
- Asia - Northern Europe (15 million TEU),
- Asia - Mediterranean Sea (7.9 million TEU),
- Northern Europe - North America (5.4 million TEU),
- Asia - Middle East (4.7 million TEU),
- Asia - East Coast of South America (2 million TEU),
- Europe - East coast of South America (1.6 million TEU),
- North America - East Coast of South America (1.2 million TEU),
Shanghai has been a leader in traffic for several years. Of the 15 largest ports, more than half (8) are located in China - this is the largest exporter and major importer of goods. Only two ports are located outside of Asia - the ports of Rotterdam and Antwerp.
Singapore, due to its advantageous geographical position, is a major transport hub, increased the volume of goods by 8.7% compared to 2017.
As for Russia, the port of St. Petersburg in 2017 entered the top ten seaports of Northern Europe - 1.8 million TEU.
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What is the largest port in the world?
1. Singapore port
Singapore tops our ranking of the largest ports in the world. In 2012, he received 537.6 million tons of cargo. In 2011, the port handled about 30 million equivalent units of containerized cargo (TEU).
The cargo port includes terminals in cities such as Tanjong Pagar, Keppel, Brani, Pasir Panjang, Sembawang and Jurong. The terminals are owned by PSA Singapore and Jurong Port.
The port receives an average of 140,000 vessels per year and connects to 600 ports worldwide. It is equipped with 204 mooring cranes and a number of gantry cranes.
Currently, a major project is underway in the port of Singapore to expand the terminal, which, after full commissioning in 2020, will add another 15 berths.
2. Shanghai port
In 2010, it was the largest port in the world, but now it has given way to Singapore. Its construction was recognized as a decisive factor in the development of the city of Shanghai. In 2012, the Chinese port handled 744 million tons of cargo, including 32.5 million TEU.
The port is located at the mouth of the Yangtze River and covers an area of 3619 sq. Km. The Shanghai International Port Group (SIPG) owns the port complex.
It consists of 125 berths with a total length of about 20 km. Each month, the Shanghai port serves more than 2,000 container ships and makes up a quarter of all of China's foreign trade.
3. Hong Kong port
Back in 1987, this seaport was recognized as the busiest in the world. A key factor in Hong Kong's economic development, the natural shelter and deep waters of Victoria Harbor provide the ideal setting for parking and handling all types of ships.
The number of container ships that passed through the port of Hong Kong was 25,869 in 2016, and the net registered tonnage was 386,853 tons.
4. Port of Shenzhen
Shenzhen Port serves industrial facilities and companies located in the Pearl River Delta. It is considered the second largest seaport in China, especially in the southern part of mainland China.
The port is considered home to 39 shipping companies that have launched 131 international container routes. 560 vessels call at Shenzhen port every month. Shekou Passenger Terminal provides fast ferry crossings across the Pearl River Delta to Hong Kong, Macau and Zhuhai.
5. Port Busan
Busan Port is the fifth in the list, serving the South Korean city of Busan as a leading participant in its economic activities. Container handling is more than 13 million TEU, which makes it a real competitor for other Asian ports in the coming years.
The South Korean port handles 40% of all sea export cargo, 80% of containerized cargo and 42% of fish products throughout the country. It is located on an area of 840,000 square meters and is capable of simultaneously serving 169 vessels.
6. Ningbo Port
Ningbo Port, which handled more than 453 million tons of cargo in 2012, is the sixth largest port in the world. Consists of 309 berths, connects with 600 ports in more than 100 countries of the world.
It is located in the coastal province of Zhejiang and includes the port areas of Beilong, Zhenhai, Ningbo, Daxi and Chuangshan. The port is managed by Ningbo Port Group.
7. Guangzhou port
The port of Guangzhou in 2012 handled more than 460 million tons of cargo, making it the seventh largest port in the world. It is located in the center of the Pearl River Delta. For comparison, in 1999, the seaport handled 100 million tons of cargo.
The port consists of four main areas, including the port of Guangzhou, as well as the port of Huangpu, Xinsha and Nansha. It is currently the largest coal loading and unloading port in China.
8. Jebel Port - Ali (Dubai)
One of the main attractions of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Jebel Ali Port is located 35 km southwest of Dubai in the Persian Gulf. Despite the crisis of 2009, the port was able to handle 10 million TEU.
9. Qingdao Port
Serves Qingdao Province, located near the Yellow River. It consists of four regions: the Dagan port area, Qianwan port, the Huangdong oil port area (for oil tankers) and the Dongjakou port.
He is well known for handling ships for the transport of dry cargo, and his transshipment rates exceed 10 million TEU.
10. Port of Rotterdam
Rounding out the top ten is the largest port on the European continent. Its area is 105 sq. Km, and its length is 40 km. In 2012, it handled 441.5 million tons of cargo.
The port of Rotterdam consists of five separate port areas and three distribution parks, which meet the needs of inland areas with 40 million consumers.
As you can see, almost all of the largest ports in the world are Asian ports. Eastern countries are constantly developing and demonstrating their superiority in this area. The ten largest ports are striking in their impressive size and congestion.
And what major ports do you know? Share with us in the comments!
Shanghai's seaport is the largest in the world due to its convenient location. The port is located between the southern and northern sides of China and has direct access to the sea. The 2012 indicator is one of the best: for the year it was possible to serve 32 and a half million twenty-foot containers.
Shanghai is the main naval base and the largest port of China, located on the Huangpu River at a distance of 50 kilometers from the coast of the East China Sea. Port facilities occupy 60 kilometers of the river’s coast, and the length of the mooring front exceeds 40 kilometers and includes more than 100 berths. The total turnover of sea freight in Shanghai exceeds 100 million tons.
The following cargoes are traditionally imported into the port:
General cargo is most often taken out of the port.
The complex includes:
- special unit for loading - unloading sea cargo,
- a container terminal that accepts and processes containers,
- special marina for transporting coal,
- storage facilities with a total area of 260,000 square meters,
- open cargo areas with an area of 100,000 square meters,
- shipbuilding and ship repairing enterprises.
One can guess that the port of Shanghai was not just the most important in the world.
1. Port of Shanghai, China
There is nothing surprising in the fact that the first place is occupied by the Chinese seaport (and along with it the river port), showing stable growth. Located in the water area with direct access to the sea and extending 50 km upstream of the Yangtze River, the port is involved in both local freight traffic and international transport. The indicators are impressive: 125 berths, about 37 million TEU per year, throughput of at least 2,000 container ships.
By 2020, it is planned to expand the deepwater coastline to 10 kilometers, as well as the construction of new berths with a capacity of over 13 million standard containers per year.
2. Port of Singapore, Singapore
Among all ports, Singapore is distinguished by its exceptional size: 31 million processed 20-foot equivalents, cargo handling from 600 ports in 123 countries. Until 2015, this marine hub ranked first among the largest ports in the world, and even now it is “breathing in the back” of Shanghai, showing steady growth (30.90 million TEU as of 2016 compared to 31.65 million TEU in 2012 )
Seaport of singapore
This port complex ranks second in size. At the same time, container turnover per year may exceed 30 million.
The port in Singapore is traditionally called the "gate of Europe", because it is it that allows you to connect Asian and European countries. In most cases, it is through this transport facility that all models of equipment sold in Europe pass. Every day, port employees handle about 80 thousand containers, with large vessels always waiting for special permission to sail into the territory.
High technologies of the seaport include 11 radars for monitoring ships, more than a thousand innovative and reliable video cameras. Only modern technologies allow us to successfully serve all container ships and cargo ships.
3. Port of Shenzhen, China
Returning to China's logistics facilities, one cannot ignore the largest export center for consumer and digital electronics manufacturers in the world. In the Pearl River Delta, the production capacities of various corporations are located, carrying out their transportation through a whole chain of Shenzhen ports. Implementing, it should be noted, successfully: more than 3 dozen operating shipping companies and 360,000 sq. M. m. of covered warehouses and a container area of 600,000 square meters. m. Among the latest indicators - processed 23.97 million TEU. Seeing the prospects for the further development of sea freight, the authorities plan to reorient it to a free trade port by 2020, simplifying the procedure for border screening of goods.
4. Port of Ningbo, China
A striking example of a competent strategy to capture the freight market is the creation of a single large seaport, which took third place in 2015 in the list of the largest ports in China. At the same time being the oldest maritime hub, today this maritime hub shows amazing growth and throughput to meet growing demand - 21.60 million TEU, significantly exceeding the previous years.
5. Port Busan, South Korea
Busan's largest port in South Korea, has two main areas - fishing and sea trade. Located on Yong Island, the port is connected to the mainland by a drawbridge. A small but steady growth in trade volume (19.85 million TEU by 2016) guarantees him a closing place in the five largest ports in the world.
TOP 10 largest ports in the world
Port Handling Statistics is handled by the Port Authority Association of America. They collect data and issue an annual report on both freight traffic and container traffic. This report, released at the end of 2018, clearly shows that Asia has become the center of sea freight transportation. The leading places in the TOP 10 are occupied by the harbors of eastern cities. This is a good example of the growth of the economies of China and Singapore.
1. Shanghai (China)
River and seaport near the metropolis of Shanghai. In the 80s of the last century was considered small. After 20 years, cargo turnover here increased from 100 million tons to 445 million. Record figures made the Shanghai sea gate the largest in the world. Today, the figure has reached 700 million, which is an absolute world record.
Shanghai Port View
Having a favorable geographical position on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, today it has existing contracts with 500 other sea harbors of the world. It is divided into several parts:
- Pudong container terminal,
- Yangshangan (deep sea harbor),
- Zhanghuabang and other terminals (total 14).
2. Singapore (Singapore)
Shanghai can only compete with Singapore, which occupies the second line both in the global ranking and in the share of container traffic. The history of the port of the city-country began in 1863.
On a small island there is a city, a country and one of the largest and most convenient ports in the world
With the growth of Singapore's economy, not only passenger, but also merchant ships began to arrive in the country. A sharp jump in development occurred in 1982, when the turnover of containers exceeded 1 million TEU (twenty-foot equivalent). Let us compare current port indicators: 30 million TEUs pass through Singapore every year. It works with 123 countries of the world, is considered ultramodern, has its own operating system.
3. Guangzhou (China)
In Guangzhou, the work of 4,600 berths is automated, an increase in indicators shows that he will soon catch up with the Singapore harbor in terms of cargo volume. China has implemented a deepening project in order to expand the port capabilities of the south of the country.
Container Handling in Guangzhou
Carries out the reception of any goods, equipped with modern equipment.
Port in hong kong
This port complex is located on the southeast coast of China and has 14 berths. The annual turnover is about 23 million TEU. Each year, port employees serve about 7,500 cargo ships, as well as 15,000 small boats and ships. Such indicators, as in other cases, are worthy.
4. Port Hedland (Australia)
From China, we will move to Australia, where the volumes of goods received and sent by sea through Port Hedland have sharply increased since 2013. Located in the west of the continent in a deep harbor. The main historical destination of Port Hedland was the transportation of ore.
Western Australia, Port Hedland
Since then, nothing has changed; containers go through Melbourne and Sydney.
Shenzhen port in China
This port complex can accept up to 23,000,000 twenty-foot containers per year.
The port includes:
- 141 berth,
- 27 shipyards,
- 18 passenger terminals
- covered warehouse area - 360 thousand square meters,
- container area - 60,000 square meters.
Such figures indicate a high level of functionality of the port of Shenzhen, which in most cases imports bulk ores, grain crops, chemical and oil products, metal, liquefied gas.
Busan Port in South Korea
In South Korea, the port of Busan is capable of accepting cargo ships capable of transporting up to 50,000 tons of cargo. The port complex is located on the coast of the Korean Strait in a natural harbor. The length of the mooring front exceeds ten kilometers.
Ningbo Port in China
The port complex is located at the intersection of northern and western directions. In addition, Ningbo is successfully used for inland navigation on the Yangtze River. The port includes several units that successfully interact with each other.
Tianjin port in China
It is this port complex that is ready to break into the tenth place of the largest ports with an annual transportation volume of 12.3 million.
All cargo ports in the world that serve a large number of ships and containers must meet the high requirements of reliability, functionality and modernity. Getting into the TOP-10 of the largest ports in the world and reliably maintaining positions is not so easy, but the best enterprises successfully cope with the task.
5. Ningbo Zhoushan (China)
The Ningbo port complex consists of five separate harbors, differing in purpose. In the world top in terms of container traffic, it takes 4th place. The development was due to the favorable geographical position and economic growth in China. Today, commodity circulation is approaching 500,000 metric tons.
Ningbo Zhoushan is developing rapidly
7. Qingdao (China)
Washed by the waters of the Yellow Sea, Qingdao occupies a leading position in the port system of mainland China. Located in the south of the Shandong Peninsula along the two banks of Jiaozhou Bay and is divided into three complexes:
- Huangdao (oil terminal),
- Dagan (historic port),
- Qianwan (new port).
Qingdao is a city with staggering rapid development
Connected to railway and car lines. There are modern capabilities for work, including a floating crane and ground gantry cranes.
8. Tianjin (China)
At the mouth of the Haihe River is the fifth largest port in mainland China. To increase the throughput, deepening work was carried out. The port is located 170 kilometers from the capital of China, which determined the fate of the city of the same name as a transshipment base on the way to Beijing.
Tianjin Cruise Port - One of its Many Parts
Automated and modern complex, container handling exceeds 14300 TEU.
9. Busan (Republic of Korea)
The largest port in Korea is located on the shores of the Korean Channel and is the state’s sea capital. A good position on the map allowed him to quickly increase cargo turnover at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries.
Busan port and city view
It has an open structure, accepts vessels with a displacement of up to 50,000 tons in 7 regions, depending on the type of goods. Protected from the winds. It is noteworthy that ships entering the harbor should be aware of the presence of mines unexploded during the Korean War at the bottom.
10. Dalian (China)
The depths in the southern region of the Liaodong Peninsula are not great and reach 17 meters. Vessels with a displacement of more than 30 thousand tons cannot use Dalian for transshipment. The modern complex has 314 mobile cranes, shipyards for the construction of new ships.
View of the port from the deck of a cruise ship
It is interesting that it was laid down by the Russians and was previously called Dalniy. The Soviet side also leased a port from China during the Second World War.
Since the end of the XIX century, with the development of industry in Europe, the load on ports has increased, the volume of transported goods has increased dramatically. Until the end of the 20th century, port cities also grew rich. Today, with the rapid development of Asian countries, the path of many goods has shifted from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Let's talk about European ports and their current state.
The largest water harbor in Europe, is among the ten world ranking. Located in the western part of the common delta of the Meuse and Rhine. He began to actively develop at the end of the 19th century along with the Dutch industry.
Port of Rotterdam. 2018 year
According to recent studies, over 462,000 tons of cargo passes annually through Rotterdam Harbor. Includes several parts:
- historic port in the central part of the city,
- Europort for receiving tankers and large containers,
- Delfshaven for stopping small vessels,
- Baalhaven for large ships and others.
The area is 105 km 2.
It is located on the banks of the Scheldt River and is one of the twenty largest world ports. It is noteworthy that it is 4 times the size of the Belgian city itself. Amazing fact: Antwerp is located on the river and has no access to the sea (80 kilometers to the coastline), while it successfully supplies not only Belgium, but also all of Western Europe.
Aerial view of Antwerp
Cargo turnover is about 215,000 metric tons annually. On the territory there are 5 terminals for receiving dry goods, separate terminals for liquid and gaseous products.
The Germans call the Hamburg Sea Terminals the "gateway to the world." They are located on the Elbe River; the total area of the port is 74 km 2.
View of the cranes from the Hamburg Maritime Station
The history of the port part of the city began almost from its foundation, in 1189. King of Germany and Emperor of the Roman Empire Frederick I Barbarossa ordered the port to be opened here, understanding the strategic location of Hamburg in relation to the center of Europe. Today, there are 17 terminals on the territory for receiving and sending all types of cargo.
In Ust-Luga, which is located near St. Petersburg, there are 11 commodity terminals and 19 berths. Annual turnover indicators are growing, which allowed him to get ahead of the Novorossiysk sea harbor by this indicator. According to the data for 2019, Ust-Luga received and dispatched 98,730 metric tons of cargo; throughput, if necessary, can double.
Ust-Luga port continues to be built and expanded
In the world ranking, the largest port of Russia takes 45th place in terms of traffic. The area is 1057 hectares. The convenient location at the mouth of the Luga Bay, 70 kilometers from St. Petersburg, is one of the reasons for the rapid development. It has been operating since 2000.
The largest southern sea gate of Russia is located in Novorossiysk. Fort Novorossiysk was founded after the end of the Russian-Turkish war in 1829. For well-coordinated work, there are:
- grain transshipment terminals
- oil infrastructure
- ship repair for all types of ships,
- forest port
- coastal radio stations.
Sunset at the port of Novorossiysk
There is a naval base. The annual volume of cargo passing through Novorossiysk is 78,000 metric tons.
The third largest port in Russia is Primorsk. It is located in the Baltic and is considered the largest among the oil in the country. It is noteworthy that in Soviet times a quarter of the entire USSR’s cargo turnover passed through this territory. Primorsky sea gates were founded in 1993 in order to escape from foreign dependence after the collapse of the state.
Marinas of the port of Primorsk
The main stages of construction began in 2000, today Primorsk accepts goods in the amount of 64,000 metric tons and continues to develop. The total area is 34.8 km 2.
Jabal Ali (UAE)
In the world list of the largest maritime harbors, Jabal Ali, located in the emirate of Dubai, is 23rd. It consists of several terminals, including freight and passenger. Serves US military vessels under a separate contract. Cargo turnover is 175,000 metric tons.
Container in the port of Jebel Ali
Richards Bay (South Africa)
It is located 160 kilometers from Durban and connects the naval base with the provinces of South Africa through the railway. It was allocated in a separate complex for the shipment of South African coal, but gradually expanded.
Richards Bay is one of the largest coal ports in the world.
The total area of the territory is 2200 hectares, there is potential for expansion.
The largest port in the world, located on the river, is Duisburg. It is located at the confluence of the Rhine and the Ruhr. Since ancient times, this place was a fort. Today, passenger and cargo ships pass through it, repairs are being carried out, and there are container and oil terminals. The infrastructure is developed, the process is fully automated.