Name: Vladimir Lenin
Real name: Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
Middle name: Ilyich
Birthday: April 22, 1870
Place of Birth: Simbirsk (now - Ulyanovsk), Russian Empire
Date of death: January 21 1924 (53 years old)
Cause of death: find out brain hemorrhage
Place of burial: find out Moscow, Mausoleum on Red Square
Height: 164 cm
Career: Historical figures
Biography of Vladimir Lenin
He was one of the key ideological inspirers of the October Revolution of 1917 and the first head of a new state created on the basis of the union of equal republics and the theory of the subsequent world revolution.
In the USSR, he was the object of incredible worship and worship. He was glorified, magnified and idealized, called a visionary, a giant of thought and a visionary genius. Today, in different sections of society, the attitude towards him is very contradictory: for some he is the greatest political theorist who influenced the course of world history, for others he is the author of particularly cruel concepts to destroy compatriots, who destroyed the foundations of the country's economy.
He grew up as an inquisitive boy, loved to arrange noisy games with his brothers and sisters: horseback, Indians, soldiers. Reading as Uncle Tom’s Cabin, he imagined himself Abraham Lincoln smashing slaveholders.
In his last year of study, in 1986, his father passed away. A year later, their family suffered another difficult test - the execution of brother Alexander by hanging. The young man was good in the natural sciences, because the terrorists who prepared the assassination attempt on Alexander III recruited him to create an explosive device. In the case, Ulyanov passed as one of the organizers of the attempt to kill the king.
The formation of political consciousness
Soon he was expelled from the university for participating in student unrest. At the request of his mother’s sister Lyubov Blank, he was sent to the village of Kukushkino in the Kazan province, and lived with his aunt for about a year. Then his political views began to take shape. He engaged in self-education, read a lot of Marxist literature, as well as the works of Dmitry Pisarev, George Plekhanov, Sergei Nechaev, Nikolai Chernyshevsky.
In 1889, Maria Alexandrovna, demonstrating her immense love and support to her son, who needed money, sold a house in Simbirsk and acquired a farm in the Samara province for 7.5 thousand rubles. She hoped that Vladimir would find an outlet in the land, but without the experience of farming, the family could not become successful. They sold the estate and moved to Samara.
Way to the revolution
In 1895, the young man went to Europe, where he met with members of the Russian Marxist group Emancipation of Labor. Returning to the city on the Neva, he founded the Union of Struggle in partnership with Julius Martov. They were in charge of strikes, the publication of a working newspaper with articles by Ulyanov, and the distribution of leaflets.
Soon Vladimir was arrested and sent to exile for 3 years in the Siberian village of Shushenskoye, where he subsequently wrote more than three dozen articles. At the end of the sentence, Ulyanov went abroad. Once in Germany, in 1900 he initiated the release of the famous underground newspaper Iskra. Then he began to sign his writings and articles with the pseudonym Lenin. Vladimir Ilyich had high hopes for Iskra, believing that it would rally disunited revolutionary organizations under the banner of Marxist ideology.
The Second Congress of the RSDLP, prepared by the revolutionary, was held in Brussels in 1903, where there was a split between the adherents of his idea of seizing power by force and the supporters of the classical parliamentary path, the Mensheviks, and the party program developed along with Plekhanov was adopted. In 1905, at the first party conference in Finland, he first met with Stalin.
The victory in the February Revolution of 1917, which led to the overthrow of the monarchy, Lenin met abroad. Arriving at home, he called for an uprising against the Provisional Government. Lev Trotsky, head of the Petrograd Soviet, was engaged in its organization. On October 25, the Bolsheviks, with the support of the proletariat, seized power. Lenin headed a completely new form of government of the RSFSR - the Council of People's Commissars, signed decrees on land (confiscation of landowner land) and peace (negotiations on non-violent reconciliation of all the warring countries).
Devastation reigned in the country, and chaos in their heads of people. Lenin signed a decree on the creation of the Red Army and the humiliating Brest peace in order to be able to focus on internal problems. Many of the country's bright minds, without appreciating his ideas, emigrated, while others joined the White Movement. Civil War broke out.
During this period, the Bolshevik leader ordered the execution of the entire royal family. Nicholas II and his wife, five of their children and close servants were killed on the night of July 16-17 in Yekaterinburg. Note that the issue of Lenin's involvement in the execution of the Romanovs is still debatable.
Personal life of Vladimir Lenin
The couple did not have offspring, although people who knew them claimed that they really wanted to have at least one child. The reason for this was called the life conditions of the couple, unfavorable for the appearance of children (exile, prisons, emigration), as well as the consequences of Krupskaya’s disease, which had been seriously ill “on the female side” during imprisonment.
According to researchers, until his death, the couple were connected not by intimacy, but by strong friendship. The leader considered his wife to be his reliable and main support in life. She repeatedly offered him freedom, in particular, so that he could marry his next mistress - Inessa Armand, with whom Nadezhda had an excellent relationship. But he always refused, did not want to let her go.
The role of V.I. It is difficult to overestimate Lenin in the history of Russia. Of course, a genius, for someone evil, for someone kind, he radically changed the fate of our country - having revealed to the world a socialist type of state and assumed responsibility for its further development.
Vladimir Lenin (real surname Ulyanov) was born in 1870 in Simbirsk in the family of an inspector of public schools. In 1879-1887 Vladimir studied at the gymnasium and graduated with a gold medal. Alexander Ulyanov, the eldest son in the family, was an active revolutionary volunteer and role model for his younger brother. In 1887, Alexander was executed for preparing an attempt on the life of Emperor Alexander III. In the same year, V.I. Ulyanov entered the faculty of law of Kazan University, but was soon expelled without the right to recovery for participating in the activities of the illegal circle of Bogoraz.
In 1891, V. Ulyanov externally graduated from the Law Faculty of St. Petersburg University. At the same time, he was working on his first book, “What are“ Friends of the People ”and How Do They Fight Against Social Democrats?” In 1895, Ulyanov-Lenin took an active part in the creation of the St. Petersburg Union of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class. For this activity V.I. Lenin was exiled for three years to the village of Shushenskoye in the Yenisei province. In 1900, he was forced to leave for Western Europe, where he published the first all-Russian illegal Marxist newspaper, Iskra.
In 1903, at the II Congress of Russian Social Democrats, as a result of a split into Mensheviks and Bolsheviks, V.I. Lenin led the "majority", then creating the Bolshevik party.
During the first Russian revolution of 1905-1907. he illegally lived in St. Petersburg, coordinating the actions of leftist forces. In 1907, Lenin again had to leave Russia this time for 10 years. During the First World War, he put forward the idea of defeating the national government, which, when implemented on a European scale, would certainly lead to the victory of the socialist revolution and the working class.
Since April 1917 in Petrograd V.I. Lenin became one of the main organizers and leaders of the October armed uprising and the establishment of Soviet power. On his personal order, on October 31 and November 2, 1917, detachments of sailors, soldiers and Red Guards were sent to Moscow from Petrograd, which ensured the transfer of power to the Soviets in Moscow. On October 25, 1917, the government was overthrown and power in the central regions of the country passed into the hands of the Bolsheviks. Until 1922, Lenin was the leader of the Bolshevik forces in the Civil War.
Having come to power, the Bolsheviks, headed by V.I. Lenin created a new type of state, the purpose of which was to stimulate the speedy fulfillment of the world socialist revolution. In contrast to the European wing of social democracy, the Bolsheviks were radical and rejected the possibility of reforming capitalism.
Lenin possessed a broad outlook and a tremendous wealth of knowledge in many fields of knowledge, including in the economy. He developed and tried to implement the policy of war communism, and after realizing its failure, he proposed a new economic policy that favorably affected the development of the country of the Soviets.
In 1922, after the assassination of Rosa Kaplan and wound, Lenin was seriously ill and withdrew from active political activity. Since May 1923, due to a sharp deterioration in his state of health, he lived in the Gorki state dacha (now the Museum Reserve). The last time Vladimir Ilyich was in Moscow on October 18-19, 1923. He died in 1924 in Gorki, near Moscow.
Vladimir Lenin is the great leader of the working people of the whole world, who is considered the most prominent politician in world history who created the first socialist state.
The Russian communist philosopher-theoretician, who continued the work of Marx and Engels, whose activities were widely developed at the beginning of the 20th century, is still interesting to the public today, since its historical role is of significant importance not only for Russia, but also for the whole world. Lenin's activity has both positive and negative assessments, which does not prevent the founder of the USSR from remaining a leading revolutionary in world history.
In 1891, Vladimir Lenin was able to pass exams at the Imperial University of St. Petersburg at the Faculty of Law. After that, he worked as an assistant to a sworn advocate from Samara, engaged in "state protection" of criminals.
Embed from Getty Images Vladimir Lenin in his youth
In 1893, the revolutionary moved to St. Petersburg and, in addition to legal practice, began writing historical works on Marxist political economy, the creation of the Russian liberation movement, the capitalist evolution of post-reform villages and industry. Then he began to create a program of the Social Democratic Party.
In 1895, Lenin made his first trip abroad and made the so-called tour of Switzerland, Germany and France, where he met his idol George Plekhanov, as well as Wilhelm Liebknecht and Paul Lafargue, who were leaders of the international labor movement.
Upon his return to Petersburg, Vladimir Ilyich managed to unite all the disparate Marxist circles into the Union of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class, at the head of which he began to prepare a plan to overthrow the autocracy. For active propaganda of his idea, Lenin and his allies were taken into custody, and after a year in prison he was sent to the Shushensky village of the Champs Elysees.
Embed from Getty Images Vladimir Lenin in 1897 with members of the Bolshevik organization
During the exile, he established contact with the Social Democrats of Moscow, St. Petersburg, Voronezh, Nizhny Novgorod, and in 1900, after the end of the exile, he traveled to all Russian cities and personally made contact with numerous organizations. In 1900, the leader created the Iskra newspaper, under whose articles it was first signed by the pseudonym Lenin.
In the same period, he became the initiator of the congress of the Russian Social-Democratic Labor Party, in which after that there was a split into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. The revolutionary headed the Bolshevik ideological and political party and launched an active struggle against Menshevism.
In the period from 1905 to 1907, Lenin lived in exile in Switzerland, where he was engaged in the preparation of an armed uprising. There he was caught by the First Russian Revolution, in the victory of which he was interested, since it opened the way to the socialist revolution.
Then Vladimir Ilyich illegally returned to Petersburg and began to act actively. He tried at all costs to attract the peasants to his side, forcing them to an armed uprising against the autocracy. The revolutionary called on people to arm themselves with everything at hand and to attack civil servants.
After the defeat in the First Russian Revolution, there was a unity of all Bolshevik forces, and Lenin, analyzing the mistakes, began to revive the revolutionary upsurge. Then he created his own legal Bolshevik party, which published the newspaper Pravda, whose editor-in-chief was Joseph Stalin. At that time, Vladimir Ilyich lived in Austria-Hungary, where he was caught by the World War II.
Embed from Getty Images Joseph Stalin and Vladimir Lenin
Having been imprisoned on suspicion of espionage in favor of Russia, Lenin prepared his theses on the war for two years, and after his release went to Switzerland, where he spoke with the slogan of turning the imperialist war into a civil war.
In 1917, Lenin and his comrades-in-arms were allowed to leave Switzerland through Germany to Russia, where a ceremonial meeting was organized. The first speech of Vladimir Ilyich to the people began with a call for a “social revolution”, which caused discontent even among Bolshevik circles. At that moment, Lenin's theses were supported by Joseph Stalin, who also believed that the power in the country should belong to the Bolsheviks.
October 20, 1917, Lenin arrived in Smolny and began to lead the uprising, which was organized by the head of the Petrograd Soviet Lev Trotsky. Vladimir Ilyich suggested acting promptly, firmly and clearly - from October 25 to 26, the Provisional Government was arrested, and on November 7 at the All-Russian Congress of Soviets Lenin decrees on peace and land were adopted, and the Council of People's Commissars was organized, headed by Vladimir Ilyich.
Embed from Getty Images Leo Trotsky and Vladimir Lenin
This was followed by the 124-day “Smolninsky period”, during which Lenin worked actively in the Kremlin. He signed a decree on the creation of the Red Army, concluded the Brest Peace Treaty with Germany, and also began to develop a program for the formation of a socialist society. At that moment, the Russian capital was transferred from Petrograd to Moscow, and the Congress of Workers, Peasants and Soldiers became the supreme authority in Russia.
After the main reforms, which consisted of withdrawing from the World War and transferring the land of the landowners to peasants, the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (RSFSR) was formed on the territory of the former Russian Empire, the rulers of which were communists led by Vladimir Lenin.
Head of the RSFSR
With the advent to power, Lenin, according to many historians, ordered the execution of the former Russian Emperor Nicholas II along with his whole family, and in July 1918 he approved the Constitution of the RSFSR. Two years later, Lenin liquidated the supreme ruler of Russia, Admiral Alexander Kolchak, who was his strongest opponent.
Then the head of the RSFSR implemented the "red terror" policy, created to strengthen the new government in the face of flourishing anti-Bolshevik activity.Then the decree on the death penalty was restored, under which anyone who did not agree with Leninist politics could fall.
After that, Vladimir Lenin set about defeating the Orthodox Church. Since that period, believers have become the main enemies of Soviet power. At that time, Christians who tried to protect the holy relics were persecuted and executed. Special concentration camps were also created for the “re-education” of the Russian people, where people were charged with particularly harsh methods that they were obliged to work for free in the name of communism. This led to mass starvation, which killed millions of people, and a terrible crisis.
Embed from Getty Images Vladimir Lenin and Kliment Voroshilov at the Congress of the Communist Party
This result forced the leader to deviate from his intended plan and create a new economic policy, during which people, under the "supervision" of the commissars, restored industry, revived construction sites and carried out industrialization of the country. In 1921, Lenin abolished “war communism”, replaced the food distribution plan with a food tax, and allowed private trade, which allowed the broad masses of the population to independently seek means of survival.
In 1922, on the recommendations of Lenin, the USSR was created, after which the revolutionary had to step back from power because of sharply shaken health. After an intense political struggle in the country in pursuit of power, Joseph Stalin became the sole leader of the Soviet Union.
The death of Vladimir Lenin occurred on January 21, 1924 in the estate of Gorky in the Moscow province. According to official figures, the leader of the Bolsheviks died of atherosclerosis caused by severe congestion at work. Two days after his death, Lenin's body was transported to Moscow and placed in the Hall of Columns, where a farewell to the founder of the USSR took place for 5 days.
Embed from Getty Images The funeral of Vladimir Lenin
On January 27, 1924, Lenin's body was embalmed and placed in a Mausoleum specially built for this, located on the Red Square of the capital. The successor to Lenin’s relics was his successor, Joseph Stalin, who wanted to make Vladimir Ilyich a “god” in the eyes of the people.
After the collapse of the USSR, the question of the reburial of Lenin was repeatedly raised in the State Duma. True, he remained at the stage of discussion back in 2000, when Vladimir Putin, who came to power, put an end to this issue during his first presidential term. He said that he does not see the desire of the vast majority of the population to rebury the body of the world leader, and until it appears, this topic will no longer be discussed in modern Russia.
Russian revolutionary, organizer and leader of the October Revolution of 1917
Lenin Vladimir Ilyich - Russian revolutionary, organizer and leader of the October Revolution of 1917, the greatest theoretician of Marxism, first chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR, creator of the world's first socialist state.
Childhood, family, education
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin) was born on April 22, 1870 in the city of Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk).
Father - Ulyanov Ilya Nikolaevich - Enlightener, paid great attention to the education of non-Russian peoples of the Volga region, organized public schools for children. He rose to the rank of State Councilor, which allowed him to receive the noble rank.
Mother - Maria Alexandrovna Ulyanova (nee Blank) - externally passed the exams for the title of elementary school teacher. I devoted myself completely to raising children, of whom there were four in the family.
Grandfather of Vladimir Lenin on his father - Nikolay Vasilyevich Ulyanov - was the son of a serf. He died when Ilya Nikolaevich was still a child. In the orphaned family of his younger brother, Ilya was raised and taught by his elder brother Vasily, the clerk of the Sapozhnikov Brothers Astrakhan company.
Maternal grandfather - Alexander Dmitrievich Blank - By education a doctor. He married Anne Grigoryevna Grosskopf (in the Grosskopf family there were Swedish and German roots). Dr. Blanc after resigning attributed to the Kazan nobility. Soon he acquired the estate of Kukushkino and became a landowner. Maria Alexandrovna lost her mother early and she and her sisters were raised by her mother’s sister. Aunt taught children music and foreign languages.
Having married Ilya Nikolayevich, Maria Alexandrovna completely devoted herself to the family. And although she was an emancipated woman, at the same time she flawlessly ran a household. Being highly educated, Maria Alexandrovna studied music and foreign languages with her children. Vladimir was fluent in German and French; he spoke worse English. Living in an environment of Russian nature, Vladimir Ulyanov loved his native culture, but also paid tribute to Western thought.
Father died when Vladimir Ulyanov was 16 years old. Until the death in 1916, Maria Alexandrovna controlled the family budget.
Vladimir was the third child in the family. At the gymnasium Volodya was the first student. By the way, the director of the gymnasium was Fedor Mikhailovich Kerenskyfather Alexander Kerensky, future head of the Provisional Government.
The gymnasium gave young Vladimir Lenin a solid foundation of knowledge. Vladimir Ilyich belonged to classes with truly German pedantry. Notebooks, books - all in neat condition. Of the subjects most of all, the schoolboy Vladimir Ulyanov was interested in philosophy and political economy, although he had excellent marks in the exact sciences.
In 1887, Vladimir Ulyanov graduated from high school with a gold medal. But for the family these past years have been a difficult test. Father died recently (1886), and then a new misfortune fell - they arrested Alexandra Ulyanova, the elder brother of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin in connection with the attempt on the life of the king. In 1887, Alexander was executed as a participant in the conspiracy of the people, this was a deep tragedy for the whole Ulyanov family.
After graduating from high school, Lenin Vladimir Ilyich entered the law faculty of Kazan University. After the tragic death of his brother, as they say in the biography of the future leader of the proletariat, Vladimir Ulyanov began to think about his views, also began to engage in politics. Of course, the young Vladimir Lenin was already under the control of the authorities because of his brother, so he was expelled from the university for participating in liberal meetings.
Lenin Vladimir Ilyich was exiled to the estate of his mother Kukushkino. It was here that the revolutionary consciousness of the young man began to take shape. He read a lot - Pisareva, Nechaeva, Chernyshevsky. Years later, Lenin said: "The novel" What to do "plowed me deeply."
In 1889, the Ulyanov family moved to Samara. The so-called pointer fell into the hands of Vladimir Ilyich Fedoseeva - One of the first propagandists of Marxism in Russia. It was a list of Marxist literature, recommended for self-education.
In September 1891, Vladimir Ulyanov took an external course in law at St. Petersburg University, and in 1892 got a job as an assistant attorney in Samara. However, Lenin was bored with this work, Vladimir Ilyich did not prove himself as a lawyer, and, having not worked for a year, he left for St. Petersburg in 1893. There Vladimir began to attend the Marxist student partnership of the Technological Institute.
The character of Vladimir Lenin was of remarkable quality: he knew how to listen and easily learned new things. Besides Of Marx, Ulyanov-Lenin for some time admired ideas Plekhanovahowever, even then he felt a certain political force within himself and began to criticize the former Narodnik Peredelnik. When in 1895, Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich met abroad with members of the Emancipation of Labor group, Plekhanov, after listening to the impassioned speeches of the young revolutionary, called him "more likely a blanquist than a Marxist."
Political activity and party work
In the same 1895, Lenin, together with Martov organized the St. Petersburg Union of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class. Naturally, after some time many members of the “Union” were arrested. Vladimir Ilyich was also arrested. First, Ulyanov was held in prison for more than a year, and in March 1897 he was sentenced to three years in the village of Shushenskoye. Here in July 1898, Lenin Vladimir Ilyich married Nadezhda Konstantinovna Krupskaya, also exiled in the case of the St. Petersburg Union of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class.
In exile, Ulyanov-Lenin could use the rich Krasnoyarsk library of the Russian bibliophile and merchant of the second guild Gennady Yudin. Lenin Vladimir Ilyich wrote more than 30 articles, as well as the solid work “The Development of Capitalism in Russia”.
After the end of the exile in 1900, Lenin went abroad. Vladimir Ilyich lived in Germany, visited London, Geneva. The future leader of the world proletariat had a plan to create a social democratic party as an organization of professional revolutionaries. Ulyanov perfectly understood the role of the mass media, therefore he made the national newspaper Iskra the core of the party. It was then that articles appeared in the newspaper signed by the pseudonym Lenin.
In July-August 1903, the second congress of the Russian Social Democratic Party (RSDLP) was held, prepared by Lenin, Plekhanov and Martov. Meetings of the congress began to be held in Brussels, but then after the ban by the Belgian police, they were transferred to London. It was at this congress that the party split into two factions - the Bolsheviks (those who were attracted to the idea of Lenin to seize power by force of arms) and the Mensheviks (Plekhanov, Martov and their supporters leaned toward classical European Social Democracy). But Lenin Vladimir Ilyich did not want to go through the parliamentary path. He was sure that tsarism would not give up power voluntarily, and therefore it can only be taken away with the help of an armed uprising. According to N.A. Berdyaev Vladimir Lenin was a theoretician of the revolution, in contrast to George Plekhanov, a theorist of Marxism.
Like-minded Vladimir Ilyich considered him an unbalanced person by nature. Maksim Gorky characterized him as "the creator of constant squabbles in the party." Yes, and his ally Leon Trotsky spoke of some of Lenin’s actions "... the squabble that master Lenin systematically incites to these matters." And in fact, for example, in 1907, the Leninist resolution of the Fifth Congress of the RSDLP led to a confrontation with almost all Russian parties. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin resolutely fought against the Mensheviks, Bolshevik liquidators, Bolshevik otzovists, God-seekers, God-organizers, Trotskyists. The factional struggle of the pre-October period reached its zenith at the Prague Conference (1912), at which, according to Vladimir Lenin, "they put an end to the liquidationist and otzovist scum." From this moment the word "Bolsheviks" was added to the name of the party - RSDLP (b). Also, Lenin Vladimir Ilyich was able to reorient the non-factional newspaper Pravda (published by L. Trotsky since 1908), becoming the actual editor. On May 5, 1912, a legal Bolshevik newspaper was published under the same name.
Revolutionary Situation, April Theses
When the February Revolution took place, Lenin was not in Russia. Upon learning of the revolution, Vladimir Ilyich immediately telegraphed to a member of the Petrograd committee of the RSDLP (b) A.G. Shlyapnikov: “No contact with other parties!”. During this period, he wrote "Letters from afar", in which he analyzed the situation in Russia. Vladimir Ilyich confidently spoke of the inevitable development of a bourgeois revolution into a socialist revolution. Many did not agree with him. Members of the Central Committee Kamenev, and Joseph Stalin headed for an alliance with the Mensheviks, as they believed that Lenin's "Letters from afar" speak of the isolation of Vladimir Ilyich from Russian realities. Only four out of five letters were published in the Pravda newspaper, and even those with banknotes. By the way, despite a long absence, Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich, was well versed in the revolutionary situation in Russia, and in his letters he perspicaciously predicted the result.
April 3, 1917 Vladimir Ilyich Lenin arrived in Russia. The Petrograd Soviet, the majority of which were Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries, organized a solemn meeting for him, it is noted in the biography of Lenin on Wikipedia. Seeing the guard of honor lined up, Vladimir Ilyich said to his wife: "Nadia, now they will arrest me." But, seeing that people greeted him, Lenin climbed onto an armored car and delivered a fiery speech, ending with its glories: “Long live the world socialist revolution!”
Then Vladimir Ilyich proposed a program of transition from the bourgeois-democratic revolution to the socialist revolution under the slogan “All power to the Soviets” (“April Theses”). The April Theses published in Pravda seemed too radical even to close associates. In his report, Lenin sharply opposed the expansion of the bourgeois-democratic revolution, announced the slogans: "No support to the Provisional Government" and "all power to the Soviets." Vladimir Ilyich Lenin proclaimed a course towards the development of a bourgeois revolution into a proletarian revolution with the subsequent liquidation of the army, police and bureaucracy.
Without Lenin there would be no October-1917
On July 7, the Provisional Government ordered the arrest of Lenin and a number of prominent Bolsheviks on charges of treason and the organization of an armed uprising. Lenin changed 17 safe houses, then together with Zinoviev hiding near Petrograd - in a hut on Lake Razliv. In August, he hid in the territory of the Grand Duchy of Finland, where he lived until the beginning of October in Yalkal, Helsingfors and Vyborg.
In early autumn, Lenin was in Finland. From there, he urged his comrades in letters to prepare an armed uprising. The famous words: “Procrastination is like death!” They frightened with their radicalism. However, in October Vladimir Ilyich returned to Petrograd to lead the uprising, organized by the chairman of the Petrograd Soviet Lev Trotsky.
On the morning of October 25 (November 7, NS), Lenin wrote the appeal “To the Citizens of Russia”: “The Provisional Government has been overthrown!”, Although at that moment the Provisional Government was still sitting in the Winter Palace. But Lenin was not occupied with such trifles. Vladimir Ilyich wrote decrees about the world, about the earth. On the night of October 25-26, the Provisional Government was arrested.
Lenin described his condition with these words: “Es Schwindelt” (dizziness). Leon Trotsky noted: “There would be no Lenin - there would be no October.”
After the revolution
It was during this period that the most difficult times came. Among Lenin's comrades-in-arms, political maneuvers began. Vladimir Ilyich was elected chairman of the Council of People's Commissars. One of the first steps of the Leninist government was the abolition of freedom of speech (opposition newspapers closed). And the promises related to bread and the world at that moment were impossible to fulfill.
In these conditions, Germany entered into negotiations with Russia, but set territorial demands. These requirements were discussed by the new government. The signing of the Brest Peace with Germany (March 1918) was not accepted by many. However, despite the fact that Lenin was in the minority, the so-called "shameful" Brest peace was signed.
Vladimir Ilyich was alone. But did not give up. He firmly stated that he would leave if his proposals were not accepted. And he won because he was a recognized leader.
Harvard University Professor Richard Pipes he wrote *: “Having penetrated insightfully into the humiliating world, which allowed him to win the necessary time, and then collapsed under the influence of his own gravity, Lenin earned the wide confidence of the Bolsheviks. When on November 13, 1918, they tore the Brest Peace, after which Germany surrendered to the Western allies, Lenin's authority was exalted to an unprecedented height in the Bolshevik movement. ”
Civil War, War Communism
So, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin became the head of the Russian state. After the victory in the revolution, Lenin enjoyed great authority among his associates. He was elected chairman of the Council of People's Commissars, chairman of the Council of Labor and Defense. He achieved a seizure of power - the previous state system was completely destroyed. To build a new system, peace is needed, but it was not.
The economic disruption, the deep social, national, political and ideological split of Russian society caused the outbreak of civil war across Russia between the armed forces of the Soviet government, the White movement and the separatists with the intervention of the Central Powers and the Entente. The Bolsheviks were merciless to their enemies. However, the enemies did not show mercy to them.
August 30 at the Michelson factory in Moscow Fanny kaplan committed a terrorist act - she shot at Lenin. True, there were rumors that she did not shoot at the leader of the world revolution, but she was punished for her crime. Who actually shot Vladimir Ilyich is still not known for certain. In response to this and the assassination of the chairman of the Petrograd Cheka Uritsky The "Red Terror" began.
It was announced by the Decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR of September 5, 1918 “On the Red Terror,” and was terminated on November 6, 1918. In an atmosphere of increasing terror, the construction of the first concentration camps began, and forced mobilization in the army. In such a difficult situation, Vladimir Ilyich tried to solve his main task - to go to the construction of communism in Russia.
November 21, 1918, Lenin signed the decree of the Council of People's Commissars "On the organization of the supply of the population with all products and personal items and households." Trade was banned, commodity-money relations were replaced by physical exchange (for example, a sewing machine was changed to a bag of flour). The state introduced the surplus appraisal.
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin introduced labor service: free public works. All, except for the members of the RSDLP (b), in parallel with the main work, were supposed to take part in the restoration of roads, the preparation of firewood. The poet also participated in such works. Alexander Blok, and academician Sergey Oldenburg. People worked for 14-16 hours.
Vladimir Ilyich did not trust the intelligentsia, although he himself belonged to this estate. There are documents that confirm that it was precisely at the direction of Lenin that many workers in science and culture were sent abroad.
As for national politics, Vladimir Ilyich insisted on a democratic "right of nations to self-determination." In December 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was created.
Creation of the Red Army
With the outbreak of the Civil War and intervention, Lenin personally took part in the creation of a regular Red Army. He understood that the seized power must be saved. Vladimir Ilyich monitored the mobilization process, the armament and equipment, managed to organize work in the rear (provision of food). He managed to persuade some tsarist experts to go over to the side of the Bolsheviks. The commander-in-chief of the naval forces appointed by him, Leon Trotsky competently conducted military operations.
Despite the difficult situation, the revolt of the sailors in Kronstadt, peasant uprisings against the policy of military communism in 1921, the Bolsheviks were able to stay in power.
New Economic Policy
English writer Herbert Wells he called Vladimir Ilyich Lenin a “Kremlin dreamer,” but in reality the proletarian leader was not like that. He saw that the economy in the country is in a disastrous situation. At the 10th Party Congress in March 1921, at the insistence of Lenin, “war communism” was abolished, the food plan was replaced by a food tax.
Lenin put forward a program of "new economic policy"; a special commission of the GOELRO was created to develop a project for electrification of Russia. Vladimir Ilyich believed that in anticipation of the world proletarian revolution, the state should keep all of large-scale industry in its hands and build socialism, the Lenin biography on Wikipedia says.
Vladimir Ilyich wanted at all costs to stabilize the situation in Russia. NEP immediately gave positive results. The process of rapid recovery of the national economy has begun.
Disease. "Testament of Lenin"
May 25, 1922, Lenin suffered a first stroke. The right side of the body was paralyzed, he could not speak. However, in October 1922, he gradually returned to business. The last public speech of Lenin took place on November 20, 1922 at the plenum of the Moscow Soviet.
The next stroke occurred in December 1922. And the third stroke, which occurred in March 1923, was the most severe. On May 15, 1923, due to illness, Vladimir Ilyich moved to the Gorki estate near Moscow.
What happened among his associates? Between the party members was a fierce struggle for leadership. The main rivals were Trotsky and Stalin.
By the way, back in early 1923, Lenin was seriously concerned about a possible split in the Central Committee. In his “Letter to the Congress” (the so-called “Testament of Lenin”), he described the leading figures of the Central Committee. Vladimir Ilyich proposed to remove from the post of Secretary General Joseph Stalin. The letter was announced in 1924 before the XIII Congress of the RCP (B.) N.K. Krupskaya.
Another concern of the leader was an excessively enlarged and worthless apparatus - unprofessional and illiterate.
In his last works, Lenin Vladimir Ilyich soberly raised the question of the need “to recognize the fundamental change in our whole point of view on socialism” (“we failed”). But Lenin’s condition also worsened due to political isolation, which he fell into through the efforts of Stalin and other party associates. Perhaps, having rethought a lot, Vladimir Ilyich wanted to have time to correct his mistakes.
January 21, 1924 at 21 hours 50 minutes, Lenin died.
Researchers from the University of California at Sacramento concluded that Vladimir Lenin was ill with a rare genetic disease that resulted in a “petrification” of cerebral vessels. An unusual disease could be transmitted to Vladimir Ilyich from his father, whose death also occurred at 53 years old.
"More than alive"
Such a person as Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich, cannot be described in a short essay. Huge volumes have been written about his life and work, both documentary and artistic. Being a politician of undoubtedly global scale, Vladimir Ilyich determined the vector of development of world history of the twentieth century. In 1917, Lenin achieved a brilliant victory, but, as the future showed, his cause was ultimately lost.
Vladimir Lenin was respected even by ideological opponents.
“Among a number of historians, there are two opposing views on Lenin. Some imagine him as a soft, purely civilian, completely devoid of military organizational skills, others show him as a tough, ruthless leader, a fan of violence. It’s probably difficult to completely agree with that and with a different view, although Trotsky in his decisive actions as the People’s Commissar received Lenin’s full support in organizing iron military discipline in the army, ”he wrote. Jan Schwartz.
Many scientists were looking for the cause of Lenin's genius in the special properties of his brain. World renowned neurophysiologist, academician Natalya ankylosing spondylitis wrote:
- Scientists have repeatedly tried to explain the phenomenon of genius. They even wanted to create a research institute in Moscow to study the brain of gifted people during their lifetime. But neither then nor now did they find any difference between a genius and an ordinary person. I personally think that this is a special brain biochemistry. As for Pushkinfor example, it was natural to “think” in rhyme. This “anomaly” is most likely not inherited. They say that genius and madness are similar. Madness is also the result of special brain biochemistry. A breakthrough in the study of this phenomenon will most likely occur in the field of genetics.
The question of the reburial of Vladimir Lenin
Almost a hundred years after the death of Lenin, the topic of his burial remains relevant. Periodically, active media appear in the media about the reburial of Vladimir Lenin, and the demolition of the Mausoleum in general.
LDPR leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky called for the burial of the body of the leader of the socialist revolution. In the spring of 2017, deputies from the LDPR and United Russia parties submitted a draft law to the State Duma for consideration, which provides a legal mechanism for the burial of the body of Vladimir Lenin. According to parliamentarians, the document should fill in the legal gap preventing the reburial of the remains of historical figures, and thereby "put an end to the Lenin case."
This intensified on the eve of the 100th anniversary of the October Revolution in Russia. In particular, the speaker of the Federation Council Valentina Matvienko She noted that the burial of the body of the founder of the Soviet state will be possible when society reaches a consensus on this issue. The head of Chechnya also proposed to bring the body of the leader of the world proletariat to the earth Ramzan Kadyrov.
TV presenter Ksenia Sobchak, who decided in the fall of 2017 to fight for the presidency, said that if she becomes president of the Russian Federation, then the first thing she’ll remove is Lenin from Red Square.
Member of the lower house of the Russian parliament Natalya Poklonskaya also spoke out. In her opinion, a dead man in the center of Moscow can hardly cause a feeling of joy.
In turn, the Kremlin said that the question of the burial of Lenin is not the topic of the agenda of the presidential administration.
The Communist Party linked the words of Sobchak about Lenin with the activity of the sun. Communist Party leader Gennady Zyuganov stated: “Unfortunately, there are illiterate people who make an offer on the eve of the great holiday (100th anniversary of the October Revolution - Ed.) In addition to disgrace and rudeness, I see nothing in this. They do not respect either their country or their ancestors. As for Ksenia Sobchak, who openly said that Russia is a “country of genetic scum”, then it begins with proposals for barbarism on Red Square. But whoever gets there with dirty hands and while intoxicated, we will drive them out of there. ”
Famous journalist and political scientist Vitaly Tretyakov wrote:
- Despite the fact that in different sectors of society, the attitude towards Lenin is very contradictory, up to a purely negative one, one cannot but admit that, on the whole, a positive attitude towards him dominates in society. And this is the historical memory and historical consciousness of the people.
In addition, it is impossible to deny that Vladimir Lenin is one of the largest political figures of the twentieth century. He undoubtedly influenced the course of world history, and the evidence that is extremely negative is rather inconclusive.
Finally, it is generally recognized that the Lenin Mausoleum is an architectural masterpiece created by one of the best architects of the first half of the twentieth century - Alexey Shchusev. And this masterpiece is very tactfully and harmoniously inscribed in the historical ensembles of Red Square and the side of the Moscow Kremlin facing it, "says V. Tretyakov.
In recent years, the President of Russia has spoken about the activities of Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Putin. At a 2016 meeting of the Presidential Council on Science and Education, Putin said that the actions of the leader of the revolution ultimately led to the collapse of the Soviet Union.
During the event, the head of the Kurchatov Institute Mikhail Kovalchukrecalling Lenin, said that "he controlled the flow of thought and only because of this - the country." To this, the president noted that it was correct to control the flow of thought, but in the case of Vladimir Ilyich, this thought "led to the collapse of the Soviet Union." “There were many such thoughts: autonomy and so on. They laid the atomic bomb under the building, which is called Russia, and it exploded later. And we did not need a world revolution. That’s such a thought there, ”the president quoted in the news.
In January 2018, the head of the Russian state compared the body of Vladimir Lenin, lying in a mausoleum on Red Square, with the relics of saints that are stored on Athos, and noted that there were a lot of borrowings from Christianity in the communist ideology. In particular, according to Putin, the Code of the builders of communism was a primitive excerpt from the Bible.
*) Pipes Richard. Russian revolution: In 3 book. Prince 2. The Bolsheviks in the struggle for power. 1917−1918.
The participation of Vladimir Lenin in revolutionary activity
In 1891 Vladimir Lenin externally entered St. Petersburg University at the Faculty of Law. There, he worked as an assistant sworn advocate from Samara and defended prisoners. In 1893 he moved to St. Petersburg and devoted much time to writing works related to Marxist political economy. At the same time, he created the program of the Social Democratic Party. Among the popular and surviving works of Lenin - "New Economic Movements in Peasant Life."
Vladimir Lenin with a newspaper
In 1895 Lenin went abroad and visited several countries at once. Among them are Switzerland, Germany and France. There Vladimir Ilyin met famous personalities like, George Plekhanov, Wilhelm Liebknecht and Paul Lafargue. Later, the revolutionary returned to his homeland and began to develop various innovations. First of all, he united all Marxist circles into the "Union of the struggle for the liberation of the working class." Lenin began to actively disseminate the idea of the struggle against the autocracy.
For such actions, Lenin and his allies were again arrested. They were in custody for a year. Further, the prisoners were sent to the Shushensky village of the Champs Elysees. During this period, the statesman actively established relations with the Social Democrats from various parts of the country, namely from Moscow, St. Petersburg, Voronezh, Nizhny Novgorod.
In the year 1900 He was free and visited all cities of Russia. Lenin devoted much time to visiting various organizations. In the same year, Lenin created a newspaper called "Spark". It was then that Vladimir Ilyich first began to sign the name "Lenin". A few months later he organized a congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party. In connection with this event, there was a split into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. Lenin became the head of the Bolshevik ideological and political party. He tried to fight the Mensheviks from everyone and took radical measures.
Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin
Since 1905 years, Lenin lived in Switzerland for three years. There he carefully prepared for an armed uprising. Later, Vladimir Ilyich illegally returned to St. Petersburg. He tried to attract the peasants to himself, so that they were one strong team for the struggle. Vladimir Lenin called on the peasants to fight actively and requested that everything that is at hand be used as a weapon. It was necessary to attack civil servants.
Role in the execution of the family of Emperor Nicholas II critic and accusations
As it became known, at night from July 16 to July 17, 1918, the family of Nicholas II and all the servants were shot. This incident occurred by order of the Ural Regional Council in Yekaterinburg. The decision was headed by the Bolsheviks. Lenin and Sverdlov had a certain number of sanctions that were used to shoot Nicholas II. This data is officially confirmed. However, historical experts and other experts are still engaged in active discussions regarding Lenin’s sanctions on the shooting of the family and servants of Nicholas II. Some historians admit this fact, others categorically deny it.
Initially, the Soviet government decided that it was necessary to judge Nicholas II. This issue was discussed in 1918 at a meeting of the Council of People's Commissars, which took place at the end of January. The party collegium officially confirmed such actions and the need for a trial of Nicholas II. This idea, respectively, was supported by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin and his allies.
Speech by Vladimir Lenin
As you know, at that time Nicholas II, his family and servants were transported from Tobolsk to Yekaterinburg. Most likely, this move was associated with all the events taking place. M. Medvedev (Kudrin) provided confirmation that it was not possible to obtain sanctions for the execution of Nicholas II. Lenin, however, argued that the tsar needed to be transferred to a safer place for life. On July 13, a meeting was held to discuss issues related to the military review and the careful protection of the king.
Wife of Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Krupskaya told that on the night of the murder of the tsar and his family, the Russian leader was at work all night and returned only early in the morning.
Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky
Personal life of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. Krupskaya
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin tried to carefully hide his personal life, like other professional revolutionaries. His wife was Nadezhda Krupskaya. They met in 1894 during the active creation of an organization called "The Union of the struggle for the liberation of the working class". At that time, a Marxist gathering took place, where they met. Nadezhda Krupskaya was delighted with the leadership qualities of Lenin and his serious character. She, in turn, interested Lenin with an analytical mindset and development in many areas. State activity greatly brought the couple together and after a few years they decided to tie the knot. The chosen one of Vladimir Ilyich was restrained and calm, extremely docile. She supported her lover in everything, no matter what. Moreover, the wife helped the Russian revolutionary in secret correspondence with various party members.
However, despite the wonderful character and fidelity of Hope, she was a terrible mistress. Almost never could have been noticed Krupskaya in the process of cooking and cleaning. She did not do housework and cooked extremely rarely. However, if such cases did occur, then Lenin did not complain and ate everything that was given to him. Note that once in 1916, on New Year's Eve, there was only yogurt on their holiday table.
Vladimir Lenin and Nadezhda Krupskaya
Before Krupskaya Lenin admired Apollinaria Yakubovahowever she rejected him. Yakubova was a socialist.
After meeting them, love broke out at first sight. Krupskaya everywhere followed her lover and participated in all the actions of Vladimir Ilyich. Soon they got married. Local peasants became best men. Rings they built their ally of copper nickels. The wedding of Krupskaya and Lenin took place on July 22, 1898 in the village of Shushensky. After that, Nadezhda truly loved her husband. Moreover, Lenin got married, despite the fact that at that time he was an ardent atheist.
In her free time, Nadezhda went about her own business, namely, theoretical and pedagogical work. She had her own opinion regarding many situations and did not completely submit to her cruel spouse.
Vladimir was always cruel and callous to his wife, but Nadezhda always worshiped him, truly loved and helped him in all areas. In addition to Hope, there were many other women in Lenin’s life even after marriage. Krupskaya knew about this, but proudly restrained the pain and tolerated a humiliating attitude towards herself. She forgot about pride and jealousy.
Vladimir Lenin and Inessa Armand
There is still no reliable information about the children of Vladimir Lenin. Someone claims that he was barren and had no children at all. And other historians say that the famous Russian leader had many illegally born children. There is also information that Lenin has a child named Alexander Steffen from his beloved Inessa Armand. Their romance lasted for five years. Inessa Armand was Lenin's mistress for a long time and Krupskaya knew about everything that was happening.
They met Inessa Armand in 1909 while in Paris. As you know, Inessa Armand is the daughter of a famous French opera singer and comic actress. At that time, Inessa was 35 years old. She was completely unlike Nadezhda Krupskaya neither externally nor internally. She was distinguished by beautiful facial features and unusual appearance. The girl had deep eyes, beautiful long hair, an excellent figure and a beautiful voice. Krupskaya, according to Anna Ulyanova, the sister of Vladimir, was completely ugly, had eyes like a fish, and did not have beautiful expressive features.
Inessa Armand had an ardent character and always vividly expressed her emotions. She loved to communicate with people, had good manners. Krupskaya, unlike the French darling of Lenin, was cold and did not like to express her emotions. They say that Vladimir most likely had just a physical attraction to this lady, he did not feel any feelings for her. However, Inessa herself was very fond of this man. Moreover, she was radical in her views and categorically did not understand free relations. Also, Armand was an excellent cook and always engaged in farming, unlike Nadezhda Krupskaya, who almost never was involved in these processes.
Information was also known that Nadezhda Krupskaya suffered from infertility. It was this fact that argued for the absence of children in a married couple for many years. Later, doctors ascertained the fact that a woman had found a terrible ailment - a Bazedov’s disease. It was this disease that was the reason for the absence of children.
The Soviet Union did not disseminate information about Lenin's betrayals and the absence of children in a married couple. These facts were considered shameful.
Parents of Nadezhda loved Vladimir Ilyich very much. They were happy that she connected her life with an intelligent young man, very educated and restrained. However, the Lenin family was not very happy about the appearance of this girl. For example, Vladimir’s sister - Anna, hated Hope and considered her strange, unattractive.
Nadezhda knew everything about her husband’s infidelity, but she behaved with restraint and never said anything to him, and even less so to Inessa. Everyone around him knew about this love triangle, since the famous revolutionary did not hide anything and did it in plain sight. Inessa Armand has always been present in the life of the couple. Moreover, Inessa and Nadezhda tried to maintain friendly relations and communicate.
Lenin Vladimir Ilyich
Lenin’s French mistress helped him in everything; she went with him to party meetings throughout Europe. Also, the woman translated his books, articles and other works. Note that in her bedroom, Nadezhda kept a photo of her husband’s mistress and looked at the rival daily. Nearby were pictures of Vladimir and mother Nadezhda.
Hope, to the last, suffered humiliation of her husband and treason, and, it would seem, had already come to terms with the presence of Vladimir's mistress. However, at some point, she could not stand it and invited her husband to leave. He did not agree and abandoned his mistress Inessa Armand. In 1920, Inessa died of a terrible disease - cholera. Nadezhda Krupskaya came to the rival’s funeral. She held Vladimir’s hand all the time.
The French darling Lenin left two children from his first marriage, who became orphans. Their father also died earlier. Therefore, the couple decided to take care of these children and take care of them. Initially, the children lived in Gorki, later they were sent abroad.
Vladimir Lenin in the last years of his life
Creativity, works and works of Lenin
Lenin was a famous successor Karl Marx. He often wrote works on this subject. Thus, he penned hundreds of works. In Soviet times, more than forty “Leninist collections” were published, as well as collected works. Among Lenin's most popular works are Development of Capitalism in Russia (1899), What to Do? (1902), Materialism and Empirio-Criticism (1909). Moreover, in the years 1919-1921 he recorded sixteen speeches on records, which testifies to the oratorical abilities of the people's leader.
The cult of Lenin
Around the personality of Vladimir Lenin, a real cult began during his reign. Petrograd was renamed Leningrad, many streets and villages were named after this Russian revolutionary. In each city of the state, a monument to Vladimir Lenin was erected. Many scientific and journalistic works cited the legendary man.
Revolutionary Lenin Vladimir Ilyich
A special survey was conducted among the population of Russia. More than 52% of respondents say that the personality of Vladimir Lenin has become one of the most important and necessary in the history of their people.
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin is a world-famous Russian revolutionary, the main leader of the Soviet people, politician and statesman. He was involved in the field of journalism, the pen of this legendary man owns hundreds of works. Over the past decades, many poems, ballads, and poems in his honor have been released. In almost every city there is a monument to Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, whose rule will be spoken about for decades more around the world.
Education of Lenin
After the gymnasium, Lenin continued his studies at Kazan University at the Law Faculty. It was then that he began to be seriously interested in politics.
The execution of his brother greatly influenced his worldview, so it is not surprising that he quickly became interested in new political movements.
Not having studied at the university for half a year, Vladimir Ulyanov-Lenin was expelled from him for participating in student unrest.
At the age of 21, he externally graduated from the Law Faculty of St. Petersburg University. After that, Lenin worked for some time as an assistant to the lawyer.
But this work did not bring him inner satisfaction, because he dreamed of great accomplishments.
Political Biography of Lenin
After 2 years, the future leader of the Russian revolution went to Petersburg, where he became a member of the Marxist circle.
Portrait of Vladimir Lenin
At the age of 25, he first went abroad.
There, he managed to meet Georgy Plekhanov, who played an important role in Lenin's biography.
Plekhanov was at that time one of the most famous supporters of Marxism.
Lenin immediately liked him, who saw in him the hero and patriot of his Fatherland.
Under the leadership of Plekhanov, the "Union of the struggle for the liberation of the working class" was formed, which Lenin immediately joined.
Six months after this, Vladimir Ilyich was arrested and put in jail. He spent about a year in prison, after which he was sent into exile in the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
However, these events did not break the spirit of the young revolutionary, convinced of the correctness of his views.
Since during his time in exile he had more free time, he began to write works aimed at creating a revolutionary movement.
In 1899 he completed the work entitled "The Development of Capitalism in Russia." In it, Lenin analyzed the economic development of the empire, criticized the representatives of liberal populism, and warned of the imminent approach of the bourgeois revolution.
In parallel with this, he studied the works of the popular Marxist theorist Karl Kautsky. It was from there that Lenin drew a lot of important information for his own political system.
At the end of the exile in 1900, Lenin decided to leave Russia. Over the next few years, he lives in London, German Munich and Swiss Geneva.
In these cities, Vladimir Ilyich actively collaborated with like-minded people, nurturing the idea of a revolution in Russia.
The creation of the USSR
After the coup, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin and his comrades-in-arms issued decrees that spoke of withdrawing from the First World War and transferring private land to peasants.
As a result, the Brest Peace was signed between Russia and Germany.
Moscow became the new capital of Soviet Russia, in which Vladimir Lenin continued his work.
Firmly established in the Kremlin, he began to struggle with any manifestation of dissent. In the summer of 1918, the leader ordered the suppression of the Left Social Revolutionaries by force, in which many people died.
In the midst of the Civil War, anarchists also opposed the Bolsheviks. However, the forces were unequal, as a result of which the anarchists were defeated and repressed.
On August 30, 1918, an attempt was made on Lenin, after which he was seriously wounded.
This incident became known throughout the country, thanks to which the people began to respect Lenin even more.
Soon, the policy of war communism came into force. An All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (VChK) was formed, which fought against the counter-revolutionary elements.
The employees of this organization had great authority. As a result of this, the Chekists almost completely eliminated the remnants of dissent.
Their methods of dealing with "enemies of the people" were often accompanied by violent acts, manifested in various forms.
After the end of the Civil War in 1922, the revival of the national economy began. War communism was abolished, and the food surplus was replaced by a food tax.
At the same time, the NEP (new economic policy) was introduced in the country, according to which private trade was allowed.
At the same time, the NEP policy envisaged the development of state-owned enterprises, electrification and cooperation.
Year of foundation of the USSR
The USSR was formed on December 30, 1922 by combining the RSFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Belorussian SSR and the Transcaucasian SFSR into one state with a single government, the capital in Moscow, the executive and judicial powers, legislative and legal systems.
It is unlikely that Lenin or his comrades-in-arms could suggest that they, in fact, created a world empire, which was destined to make colossal breakthroughs in science and technology, to enter outer space for the first time and win the most bloody war in human history.
The last years of Lenin's life
Obviously, the many political events that took place in Lenin’s biography over the past few years could not but affect his health.
Thus, in the spring of 1922, he suffered 2 strokes, but at the same time he maintained his sanity. The last public speech of Lenin took place on November 20, 1922 at the plenum of the Moscow Soviet.
On December 16, 1922, his state of health deteriorated again, and on May 15, 1923, due to his illness, he moved to the Gorki estate near Moscow.
Ill Lenin in Gorki
But even in this state, Lenin, with the help of the stenographer, dictated letters and various notes. A year later, he suffered a third stroke, which made him completely disabled.
January 21, 1924 Vladimir Ilyich Lenin died at the age of 53 years.
Farewell to the leader of the world proletariat took place for 5 days. On the sixth day after death, Lenin's body was embalmed and placed in the Mausoleum.
The name of the leader called many cities and streets of the USSR. It was difficult to find a city wherever there were streets or squares named after Lenin, not to mention the tens of thousands of monuments erected throughout Russia.
After Lenin, power over the Soviet Union took Joseph Stalin, who ruled for almost 30 years.
Lenin and Stalin in Gorki, 1922