In 1802, the English inventor Watt introduced his own version of the car, which developed speed on a direct road to fifteen kilometers per hour. In 1790, the American Nathan Reed introduced his model of a steam car. Another American, Oliver Evans, created another fourteen years later an amphibious car.
In the nineteenth century, having become widespread, steam engine cars were used to transport people. The person managing it was called a driver, the one who was kindling a steam boiler was called a driver. It should be noted that cars have improved many times, but remained very uncomfortable for operation. The most famous cars of the second half of the nineteenth century were the Reverence and the Mansel. Their speed did not exceed thirty-five kilometers. These cars are called the harbingers of the first real cars.
The very first car in the world
The car looked like a cart, but its movement was carried out not by horses, but by a steam engine. At a maximum speed of not more than five kilometers per hour, it had a load capacity of up to five tons.
During the test, several accidents occurred and the project was closed. Cons of the car - an ineffective brake system, the need for frequent stops to ignite the furnace, a rapid drop in pressure in the boiler.
The prototypes of the first car
The invention is always attributed to any one person, so Karl Benz, who created the first self-propelled cart in 1886, is considered the inventor of the car. But in fact, there have been attempts to construct a car before, just Karl Benz became the first person to register his invention and receive a patent.
Hearing the name of Leonardo da Vinci, many immediately represent the great artist. But not everyone knows that the great brush master was a talented architect and inventor. Historians have found drawings in which Leonardo da Vinci displayed a prototype of the future car. His ideas were not realized at that time, but in 1752 the self-taught mechanic Leonty Shamshurenkov created the first self-propelled carriage, which was set in motion with the help of two people.
How did you run the very first car
The first prototypes of the future car worked for a couple, but steam engines were bulky, more suitable for steam locomotives. For the engines of self-propelled vehicles, another fuel was required, and at the beginning of the 19th century experiments with oil were already carried out. In particular, in Russia (in the Ukhta region) at the end of the 18th century a plant was operating that was engaged in oil pre-treatment. The first person who managed to get real gasoline was Michael Faraday, this happened in 1825.
The invention of cracking (the splitting of hydrocarbons) belongs to the Russian engineer Shukhov, due to this method, it was possible to increase the volume of gasoline produced from oil with a significantly better efficiency. It was with such gasoline that the very first car was refueled in the future.
Daimler and Benz, as the founders of the automotive industry.
Time passed, but the cars did not change. We can say that the evolutionary process in this industry has come to a standstill. How the internal combustion engine was invented and appeared before the world in 1885 the very first car - The tricycle of Karl Benz. The car was rather unpretentious, it was a kind of invention of Kulibin, it was only set in motion not by muscular power, but by a gasoline engine. Almost at the same time, Gottlieb Daimler invented a bicycle with a motor, and a year later, a “motor vehicle”.
First car in the world was invented by Karl Benz in 1886. He received public recognition and was launched into industrial production. It was a three-wheeled vehicle with a 1.7 liter engine, which was located horizontally. A large flywheel protruded strongly from the rear. This vehicle was controlled with the help of a T-shaped steering wheel.
At this point, the story first car goes to a new level, since Benz was the first to offer customers a ready-to-use prototype of a modern car, and Daimler was the first to launch a functional car engine.
The peculiarity of this car was that it used a water-cooled engine. Moreover, the engine and flywheel were located horizontally. The crankshaft was open. Through a simple differential, using a belt and chains, the engine powered the rear wheels. The main achievement of conductor thought could be considered the use of an intake valve with a mechanical actuator and electric ignition. Initially, the engine displacement was only 985 cubic meters. see, this is not enough even to disperse the car. Therefore, the first cars put on sale were equipped with more powerful engines with a displacement of 1.7 liters and a two-stage gearbox. Over the years, the engine power increased 4 times and amounted to 2.5 hp. Thus, the Benza car developed a top speed of 19 km / h, which is not bad for the first car in the world. However, Karl Benz did not like this, and he continued his search. And soon his brainchild successfully performed in the then-famous races London-to-brighton runpossessing an average speed of 13 km / h. Mass production of the car began only in 1890.
Three years later, Benz launched the first four-wheel cars. Based on a three-wheeled design, at that time they seemed too old-fashioned. But, despite their slowness and primitiveness, they were distinguished by simplicity, accessibility, in terms of maintenance and repair, and durability. Later, a two-cylinder modification appeared, but, at the insistence of Benz, the initial technical solutions basically remained unchanged.
Preview - click-through increase.
In the pictures - model "Viktoria" of 1893. Improvements to the four-wheeled "Benz" (1892) continued until 1901. Despite the undemanding design, more than 2300 units were produced.
In 1909, the company was faced with difficulties. Against the will of Benz, I had to assemble a group of French engineers who designed a more advanced model of the car. They tried to put it into production in 1903, but it all ended in failure, which made Karl Benz forget about his ambitions: he proposed a modern four-cylinder in-line engine that met the requirements of the new chassis. After launching this new “hybrid” model into production, the business of the company slowly went uphill.
Preview - click-through increase.
The first model of Gottlieb Daimler in 1886 was an attempt to use a horse-drawn carriage as a power unit. The basic mechanical parts are still very primitive, but the single-cylinder engine is the prototype of modern automobile engines.
Daimler proved himself to be a more restrained and patient constructor. Unlike Benz, he did not rush forward. Having relied on stationary engines, together with his associate Wilhelm Maybach in 1889 he created his first functional car "Daimler" and launched it in production in 1895. Also, simultaneously with cars, the company licensed its own engines to lay the foundations for the release of the latest, previously unprecedented models, such as the French "Panhard" and "Peugeot". In 1889, the first car ever appeared capable of reaching speeds of more than 80 km / h. Its filling was a four-cylinder engine with 24 hp. and other technical innovations. This car was very heavy, bulky, uncontrollable, and most importantly - unsafe. In this connection, the further policy of the company was aimed at making the car lighter in weight and more manageable. Soon there were many people who wanted to have such a car.
As a result, a widely known model was born, named after his daughter, Mercedes. It was published at the very end of 1900 and, according to historians, became the prototype of a modern car.
Preview - click-through increase.
In the pictures - the first "Mercedes" (December 1890) - the prototype of a modern car with a simple body designed to participate in car racing. Instead, a four-seater "walking" body could be installed. The gearshift lever is clearly visible in the picture.
Model "Mercedes" 35 h.p. It combined: gear shifting, a cellular radiator and ignition from a low-voltage magnet - from previous Daimler models - and technical innovations - a low located lightweight stamped frame and a mechanical drive of intake valves (although this novelty was subsequently abandoned). In a compartment, these technical solutions gave life to a car that differed from its predecessors in more reliable operation and was unusually obedient to the driver. Brake systems have become much more reliable, and the quality of the machine itself has been talked about all over the world.
At that time, the most interesting thing happened, all Daimler models were renamed to Mersedes.
In the pictures - one of the models of the company "Daimler" - "Mercedes-Simplex" in 1904, which has an excellent four-cylinder engine at 5.3 liters with side valves. Even today, the model does not look old-fashioned.
First gasoline engine
In order for the car to go, a motor was needed. The first internal combustion engine, which was invented by Isaac de Rivaz, was powered by hydrogen, and it had the same piston-rod system as a modern automobile engine. The French-Swiss inventor patented his “brainchild” in 1807, and created a wheeled trolley based on the engine (in 1808). But the invention of François Isaac de Rivaz was not successful - the efficiency of the motor was very small, the trolley itself was not used.
The first ICE, mass-produced, was patented in 1859 by Jacques Etienne Lenoir, a Belgian engineer. Its engine was powered by a gas mixture and ignited by an electric spark. A spool was installed in the engine and exhaust gases escaped through it. The efficiency of the power plant was only 4%, however, the internal combustion engine was much smaller and quieter than the steam engines that existed at that time. The invention began to be popular, and Lenoir was waiting for success.
On the basis of the Lenoir engine in 1863, August Otto creates a more advanced two-stroke ICE, the efficiency of which grows to 15%. Inspired by success, the German engineer continues to work on the invention, and in 1876 he received a patent for the invention of the world's first four-stroke engine. ICE created by August Otto, is the prototype of all modern engines, which also operate on a four-stroke circuit.
Together with August Otto, Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach have been working on the development of the engine for some time, but disagreements arise between colleagues, and in 1880 Daimler and Maybach leave Otto and open their workshop. It was Daimler who created a truly efficient gasoline ICE, which became the engine for the world's first car.
Gottlieb Daimler - the first to find diverse uses for gasoline - he created a motorcycle by installing a small engine on it. It should be noted that the vehicle was not fast by today's standards, it could reach a speed of only 12 km / h.
Benz car and the first hijacking
Automotive history spans over a hundred years. And which car was the very first? It turns out that the first cars were actually two! Independently two German engineers, Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler, simultaneously built their self-propelled crews.
Two remarkable inventors, Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler, lived at the same time, in the same country, but never met. Each of them organized their own car manufacturing company.
In 1885, K. Benz first rode out on the streets of Mannheim on his three-wheeled self-propelled carriage. The novelty did not cause much interest among residents. Rather, fright and irritation. The noise of the motor scared the butcher's horse. The horse rushed along with the cart, not understanding the road. All goods scattered in different directions. K. Benz had to buy 200 kg of crumbling meat and put his car into the garage for a long time. But here the wife of the inventor Bert Ringent intervened. In a neighboring town, her relatives lived. It was to them that she and the sons of Benz decided to get by car.
In the early summer morning, when the inventor himself was still asleep, the conspirators rolled the car out of the garage. The eldest son sat behind the wheel, his mother next to him, and the youngest, along with his luggage, fuel and tools, got into the back seat. On a flat road, the car was going fine, but it had to be pushed uphill. Wooden brake pads upholstered in leather could not withstand the downhill. Several times the crew stopped near the shops of village cobblers to re-leather the brake. A rural blacksmith had to fix an extended bicycle chain. When the gas line became clogged, Berta cleared it with a hairpin, and tied up the loose parts of the motor with a ribbon.
The journey lasted five days and was the first rally in history. All of Germany soon found out about him.
Daimler's car and the first car accident
The first who became interested in the work of Gottlieb Daimler were not enthusiastic admirers, but ... policemen! During the year they watched his house in the small German town of Cannstadt. Something strange happened in a small workshop. There the hammer constantly roared, something rattled and rattled. Himself Daimler, the owner of the house, and his partner Wilhelm Maybach were extremely uncommunicative, avoided people and didn’t let anyone in.
Finally, when something rattled and rattled in the workshop so that it was heard even on the next street, the police could not stand it and broke into the workshop. The owners were too keen on their business and did not immediately notice the intruders. Then the senior policeman loudly ordered an end to this disgrace. In the silence that came, the question was: “What is it?” Both designers enthusiastically began to explain that this was the first gasoline-powered internal combustion engine in the world. And they even tried to explain the principle of its work. The policemen were not inspired by the enthusiasm of the inventors, fined them and left.
The power of the first engine was only half the horsepower. For comparison: the engine power of a conventional modern passenger car is 100 liters. from.
Further G. Daimler began to think up how he would better use his engine. First, he installed it on a two-wheeled "saddle car" - that was the name of the design.
This prototype of the motorcycle had wooden wheels and a wooden frame, and it accelerated to a speed of 12 km / h. But it was not a car yet. Daimler built it a little later, in 1886. The inventor mounted the engine on a carriage and adjusted the steering to it. Thus, the first four wheel car. It accelerates to 18 km / h. For that time - a speed record! The motor could only be started on the move. First I had to push the crew, and then jump on the go. Once Daimler did not catch up with his car, and she drove straight into the ditch. So happened the world's first car accident.
First race car
The best advertisement for a car is a victory in races. And for this we need special machines. One of the first race cars was a Mercedes. It was ordered by the company Daimler Austrian entrepreneur Emil Jellinek. He was engaged in the sale of Daimler’s cars and was fond of racing, and he named the first race car, built specifically for him, in honor of his daughter Mercedes. Moreover, he himself took part in races under the pseudonym "Monsieur Mercedes." At the request of Jellinek in the car made a number of technical improvements. For example, he demanded that the car develop an unprecedented speed at that time - 40 km / h!
In 1899, in the French city of Nice, regular races took place. The gentleman with a mysterious name in a car never seen before received the main prize. After that, the brand’s popularity has grown very much. During the year, Jellinek managed to sell 36 cars. This is almost everything that was produced by Daimler.
In 1902, Jellinek registered the trademark "Mercedes»To trade Daimler’s cars. At this point, the Mercedes was already accelerating to a speed of 90 km / h, and a queue lined up for them several years in advance.
Rolls Royce - The Silver Ghost
In 1904, the English engineer G. Royce and the driver C. Rolls created their own automobile company. They decided to build only expensive comfortable and high-speed cars. So in 1906 the famous “bornSilver ghost". The maximum speed of this monster was 105 km / h. This car compares favorably with other cars. She was soft, comfortable and, most importantly, worked silently! Contemporaries compared the operation of the motor of this machine with the chatter of a sewing machine. On tests, this car passed as many as 24 thousand km and never broke! It was incredible reliability! Of course, this car was the winner of all the races in which he took part.
Since 1911 on the radiator "Silver ghosts"Set the figure of a flying lady. For many years, all the figures were made and polished by hand.
The first Russian car
In Russia, the first car was built by Eugene Alexandrovich Yakovlev and Peter Alexandrovich Frese. July 1, 1896 they showed it at the Nizhny Novgorod Industrial and Art Exhibition.
E. Yakovlev owned a plant for the production of kerosene and gas engines, and P. Frese was the manager of the horse-drawn carriage factory. They decided to combine their capabilities and became the first in Russia to create a "self-running crew" or "gas engine". So they called their car.
In appearance, the first Russian car resembled a K. Benz car. The equipment included a folding leather top, a beep with a rubber bulb, lights. To rotate, a steering lever mounted in front of the seat on a vertical column was used. The brake was also engaged by a lever. Engine power was 2 liters. from.
The chassis of the car was a converted horse-drawn carriage with large wooden wheels. The body was double.
Two Russian entrepreneurs and the creator of the first Russian car, E. Yakovlev and P. Frese, met not in Russia, but at a technical exhibition in Chicago in 1893.
The first production domestic car
The first production Russian car was Russo-Balt. In 1908, it began to be produced at the Russian-Baltic Carriage Works in Riga. Every year, more than a hundred Russo-Baltes of various models drove out of the gates of the assembly shop.
Racing Russo-Balt in 1912 participated in competitions in Monte Carlo. There he did not receive any prize, but not race was noteworthy for us, but the fact that from St. Petersburg to Monte Carlo, which is 3257 km, Russo-Balt arrived on its own. The editor of Automobile magazine, Andrei Nagel, was driving the car. Forty times he slipped off an icy road into a roadside ditch, and then a wonderful decision occurred to him. He put on leather tires with nails. So the first in the world appeared studded tires.
The car "Peugeot-Bebe"
First car Armana Peugeot appeared in 1901. It was a motor-carriage, which weighed only 270 kg. He called it "Peugeot-Bebe." The designer liked this name so much that for several years he also called all subsequent machines “Peugeot Bebe". In 1905, at the next Bebe, the designer used his own invention - shock absorbers. They were designed so that the machine does not swing on every bump.
The best "Peugeot-Bebe" began to produce in 1912. It was equipped with a four-cylinder engine, but the gearbox had only two gears. This did not stop the car from accelerating to 60 km / h. The reverse gear did not engage in the same way as in modern cars. There was a separate lever for her. The main disadvantage of the car was tires. They very quickly became worthless. The driver had to carry two spare wheels with him. The last Peugeot-Bebe car left the factory gate in 1916.
A total of 3095 cars were produced. Several copies survived to this day, with two of them located in Russia.
At the beginning of the twentieth century. in all European countries combined, about 2 thousand cars were produced per year. But during the same time, Ford factory in the US city of Detroit alone collected more than 10 thousand cars!
The first taxi car became "Renault AH". He began to produce in 1906. The power of his motor exceeded 100 liters. sec., and the maximum speed was 148 km / h. Of course, for a taxi the car was made easier, but the race played an advertising role. The brand has become very popular in Europe.
At first, the first car taxi was not easy to compete with horse-drawn carriages, but over time, there were more and more taxi lovers. Unlike its sports predecessor, the Renault-AX was equipped with soft springs. Its maximum speed was much lower - only 65 km / h, but this is quite enough for city driving. The drivers of the world's first taxis sat in an open area, and passengers were located in a closed cabin.
The first automobile conveyor
American inventor and industrialist Henry Ford Born in 1863 in the state of Michigan, in a large family of a farmer. He was one of eight children, and his parents did not have sufficient funds for his education. After studying at school for eight years, Henry began working on a farm with his father. At 16, he left home and began to earn money on his own.
Henry Ford built his first car in 1893, for which he used gas pipes, bicycle wheels and various trash selected in a landfill. But after a few years in the city of Detroit, the young designer created an automobile company, which later became known as the Ford Motors Company. And in 1908, eight car models were already assembled at a factory owned by this company. And in the same year, Henry Ford created the Model T car.
«Ford T nicknamed "Tin Lizzy»Turned out to be the first mass car to be assembled on a conveyor. Henry Ford is believed to have been the creator the world's first conveyor. However, the famous businessman himself admitted that he had spied this idea in a slaughterhouse. He saw that the carcasses of animals suspended on hooks were moving, and the workers who process them stood. He really liked this method, and in 1914, Henry Ford used it in his factory. Only cars were not suspended on any hooks, but placed on reliable platforms that moved from worker to worker. Now each of them performed one simple action, for example: fastened the wheels or installed glass and sent the car on. The semi-assembled machine moved to the next worker. The innovation has allowed many times to increase the number of cars produced. Thanks to the assembly line, over 15 million Lizzie Tins have been sold over 20 years.
All Lizzie Tins were painted black. Ford joked: “You can buy a car of any color from us, provided that this color is black.”
Thanks to the assembly line, the Lizzie Tin turned out to be an inexpensive and affordable machine for many Americans. And not just the Americans. Ford cars were readily brought to other countries of the world. Their price at first was only 900 dollars. Then it dropped to 850, later to 450, and finally to $ 250!
Henry Ford's dream came true. Now every worker in his factory could buy what he produced. Two years after the launch of the T model in the United States, the Ford factory in England was built, and another five years later in Germany. Thus, the Ford T became the first "worldwide" car.
Like most modern cars, the Ford T had three pedals. But they performed completely different tasks! Not every modern driver could deal with them. When you press the left pedal, the first gear is engaged, and when it is released, the second gear. The central pedal included reverse gear, and the right one was a foot brake. Instead of a modern gas pedal, there was a special handle under the steering wheel.
A gas pump was not yet invented, fuel was supplied from the tank by gravity. And the gas tank itself was located at the rear of the car. And so that the fuel does not stop coming into the engine, if necessary, it was recommended that drivers move uphill ... backing up. The maximum speed of the car was 80 km / h. Very good at the time!
The motto of Henry Ford was the words: "Make cars where they will buy them." Now there are more than a hundred factories that produce Ford cars and parts for them around the world.
By the end of the 1920s Ford T cars made up half of all cars on the planet. But by then the car was clearly outdated.
In 1927, the model “T” was replaced on the conveyor by the equally famous “Ford A", Which accelerates to 105 km / h and, to the delight of customers, could be painted in any color. These cars were also produced at all Ford factories around the world. It was produced in our country under the name GAZ-A.
History of the car
To the question of who created the first car, the answer is quite complicated, since there were many developments, scientists invented something similar to a car. At the same time, some tried to declare themselves, and some were extremely tolerant of fame and simply invented.
The first vehicles were divided into the following:
- Steam engine powered.
- Running on an internal combustion engine.
We will talk about each variety in more detail later. Now we’ll go a little deeper into the history of the creation of a car and see how society came to use such vehicles.
Once upon a time, Leonty Shamshurenkov created the first self-propelled vehicle, which is considered the prototype of a modern car. This device is capable of speeds of about 15 km / h and was equipped with a device that measures mileage.
Scooter carriage of Ivan Kulibin
Not without the famous Ivan Kulibin. He came up with a three-wheeled scooter that drove around the city at a speed of 16 km / h. There were even some details that are used in modern vehicles to this day, for example, a brake or gearbox.
Some people think that the very first world auto was developed precisely by engineer Karl Benz. But it is worth recognizing that he really made a huge contribution to the promotion of these vehicles.
Steam engine cars
The first cars were equipped with a steam engine. Only a century later they were replaced by devices with internal combustion engines. In Russia, devices were created in the 19th century.
The very first car with a steam engine has gained widespread popularity. The machine was developed in 1769 by the French scientist Kunho and had the name "Small Cart Kyuno". Such transport could pick up speed of only 4.5 km / h, and there was enough water and steam for only 12 minutes of movement.
In the 19th century, this species was used to transport people. The man behind the wheel was called the driver, and the one who heated the boiler was called the driver.
The most famous models were Reverance and Mansel. Their speed was not more than 35 km / h, and in operation they are very uncomfortable.
Cars with an internal combustion engine
The first developer of devices with an internal combustion engine is E. Lenoir. In 1860, he invented the very first engine, in which fuel was burned inside. This development was an important step in the automotive industry. The first car with this type of engine appeared in 1886, and a couple of months later the world presented a three-wheeled car by K. Benz.
In 1894, the first auto racing began, which also played an important role in the development of the automotive industry. In the first races, the speed of cars was no more than 24 km / h, and after five years it became already 70 km / h, after another five years - about 100 km / h. Only since 1900 began to specifically produce racing cars.
In the 19th century, there was an active development of electric machines. Hungarian Agnos became the chief designer in this area. He made a compact model of a device that moved with the help of electrical energy.
Next, a blacksmith by the name of Davenport from Vermont dealt with models. Later they began to use electricity in full-size self-propelled carriages on specialized galvanic cells.
The very first car brands
The first Benz car had an engine capacity of just under 1 liter, and with such an engine it was impossible to even accelerate. 1.7 l ICE was used for cars launched into serial production, and the transmission was a two-speed gearbox. Benz car developed a top speed of 19 km / h, in 1893 the first 4-wheel cars appeared.
In 1897, Emil Jellinek purchased a Daimler Phoenix car, and the businessman around liked the car so much that Emil Jellinek asked Daimler to produce some more cars, which he named after his daughter Mercedes. Thus, the name of the well-known Mercedes brand appeared, and an Austrian businessman with his capital joined the company, later becoming a member of the DMG board.
But not only Benz and Daimler existed at the dawn of the automotive industry - by 1900, the automotive industry began to develop in Belgium (Vincke), Switzerland (Rudolf Egg), Italy (Fiat), Sweden (Vagnfabrik AB). The first Peugeot was released in 1889, it worked with a steam engine. A year after meeting with Gottlieb Daimler, Arman Peugeot decided to install a gasoline engine, created under license from Daimler. The first Peugeot engines were created in 1896, and they already had their own development.
The first gas-powered car
The very first gasoline engine in the world was created in 1883. Gottlieb Daimler became its creator. A few years later, engineer Karl Benz developed the very first car on three wheels equipped with a gasoline engine, and he became the prototype of modern vehicles.
Only Karl Benz fulfilled all four conditions, so he became the full owner of the title of designer of the world's first car. These conditions were as follows:
- Modified transport design.
- Registration of the necessary patent.
- Creating a sample and presenting it publicly.
- Organization of production.
Due to the observance of these conditions, the designer became the first inventor of machines, but Gottlieb Daimler was the first to invent a gas engine. As a result, these two designers created a joint project and began to sell cars that were named in honor of Daimler’s daughter, Mercedes.
The very first car in Russia
The first car assembled in Russia was presented at the Nizhny Novgorod art and industrial exhibition; it was made by the Frese factory and the Yakovlev factory. The car of Frese and Yakovlev had the equipment:
- single-cylinder four-stroke engine (2 hp),
- two speed gearbox.
Technical characteristics of the Russian car are as follows:
- vehicle length 3200 mm,
- width - 1530 mm,
- height - 1440 mm (with a complex awning),
- diameter of front wheels - 680 mm,
- the diameter of the rear wheels - 836 mm,
- wheelbase - 1037 mm,
- car weight - 300 kg.
This technique could reach speeds of up to 21 km / h, like all cars of this time, Frese and Yakovlev's car looked like a carriage. At that time, the subframes were made of wooden timber on cars; the same subframe was also on Russian cars. The rims of those years were very similar to bicycle wheels or carriage wheels - they had wooden spokes, but the tires themselves were still rubber.
The engine on the machine was located under the body, and it was mounted horizontally, with the cylinder back. The car was equipped with a carburetor, and the air-fuel mixture was ignited by a spark in the combustion chamber when the contacts were opened.
Two candlelights were installed in front of the car, there was a signal horn. In the car, a brake pedal was provided, but the gas control was manual. The carriage (if you can call it that car interior) was equipped with a folding leather top, instead of the steering wheel there was a lever.
The first Russian car could not move back, since it had only two gears - “forward” and “neutral”. Speeds were switched using levers mounted on the steering column. The car also provided for a hand brake that went to the rear wheels. Here you can list the following design features of the car:
- engine cooling - water,
- fuel capacity is designed for 214 kilometers,
- ignition timing was regulated using a “coin” (as on motorcycles),
- there was a muffler
- speeds were switched using belts that moved to the corresponding pulleys.
The car was demonstrated to Tsar Nicholas II, but he reacted coolly to the new product. After the Nizhny Novgorod exhibition, the car was returned to Moscow, where it disappeared from view, only two photos remained of it.
At the end of 1890, a world-famous car was created, which was called Mercedes. This car, according to historians, has become the progenitor of modern cars. Mercedes had the following advantages:
- Power 35 L from. In those days - this is a true achievement and the highest skill of designers.
- The ignition is switched on thanks to the built-in low voltage magnet.
- Possibility of gear shifting.
- High quality body materials.
- Strong stamped frame, thanks to which the car was reliable and obedient.
- The latest generation brakes.
- 5.3 liter engine with side valves.
Famous Mercedes-35PS Model
The first car in Russia
The first car brought to Russia was the Panar-Levassor. In 1891, it was brought by Vasily Navrotsky. After that, interest in transport in the country began to grow. At the end of the year, several more models were brought. But despite this, the very first car on the streets of Moscow was seen only in 1899.
Modern cars surprise with high-speed capabilities, for example, sports cars can accelerate to one hundred kilometers in 2.78 seconds. But like so much in the technology world, car production began only with enthusiasm. Whoever was considered the first car designer, but Marcus, Daimler and Benz always went in the right direction. This is perhaps the most important thing.