Environmental issues are more relevant today than ever. Emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere and bodies of water, high levels of carbon dioxide in the air, dirty streets - all this worsens the environment and negatively affects our health. Let's find out which cities are considered the cleanest in Russia in environmental terms and, accordingly, the most favorable for life.
What do experts pay attention to when exploring the issue of “clean cities” and compiling ratings of the most environmentally friendly of them?
First of all, the presence of green spaces: parks and forests, gardens and squares. It's no secret that it is plants that most effectively clean the air of pollutants and produce the oxygen we need so much. The concentrations of hazardous industries that pollute the environment with emissions are also taken into account. Issues of timely collection and disposal of garbage are also of considerable importance. Finally, we will not forget about the quality of drinking water, the cleanliness of the water basin, transport and energy consumption.
The cleanest cities in Russia
Every year, environmental services compile ratings of the cleanest cities in the Russian Federation, based on the above factors. But the most trustworthy are studies conducted by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of Russia. According to the results of 2014 (the rating for 2015 has not yet been compiled), the leader in environmental impact management is Saransk, in energy consumption - Ivanovo, in transport - Krasnodar, in water quality - Ufa, in the number of green spaces - Ufa and Murmansk, in waste collection and disposal - Volgograd, air purity - Vologda. Unfortunately, cities leading in one category may not have the best performance in others. Therefore, not all the settlements mentioned above were included in the consolidated list.
So, to your attention there are 10 of the cleanest cities in our country in the aggregate of all factors (the number of population is indicated in brackets).
Pskov (200 thousand people)
Despite the developed industry, the environmental situation in Pskov is surprisingly favorable. This city has many green spaces, gardens and park areas. The total area of parks and squares exceeds 40 hectares. Dense coniferous forests located outside the city limits play a large role in air purification. Therefore, the degree of air pollution remains stably low.
Smolensk (330 thousand people)
Smolensk is surrounded by forests, and within the city there are 8 leisure parks, over 10 squares and gardens, 4 forest parks. The largest enterprises operate in areas such as the manufacture of electrical equipment, furniture, jewelry, food. Fortunately, they do not cause severe damage to the environment - the level of pollution of the atmosphere and water is low.
Murmansk (300 thousand people)
The rank of one of the cleanest cities in Russia is worthy of Murmansk - the northern port city. The industry of Murmansk is dominated by fishing and shipbuilding, so the volume of harmful emissions into the air is minimal.
This is interesting: For 15 years in a row, experts have noted a trend to improve the environmental situation in Murmansk and reduce the amount of harmful industrial waste.
Nizhnevartovsk (270 thousand people)
It would seem that a city with many enterprises operating in the field of oil production and oil refining industry cannot be ecologically clean. But Nizhnevartovsk is a rare exception. Despite the harmful enterprises, environmental pollution in this city is within the normal range, and the streets of Nizhnevartovsk are completely clean and well-groomed. Perhaps this paradox is due to the fact that this city is on the list of 5 richest in Russia, even ahead of the Northern capital, St. Petersburg.
Sochi (390 thousand people)
The absence of heavy industry enterprises that cause the most damage to the environment, coupled with beautiful nature, allows Sochi to be considered one of the most ecological cities in Russia. A well-developed infrastructure and kilometers of clean beaches with golden sand annually attract hundreds of thousands of tourists from Russia and abroad.
In early 2014, Sochi was recognized as the cleanest city in Russia, which was greatly facilitated by the holding of the Winter Olympic Games here. Going to receive millions of foreign fans and guests of honor, Sochi has transformed, having become a truly European city in a few years. And the matter is not only in new buildings and infrastructure facilities. The city authorities did everything possible to restore order and maintain cleanliness in the streets of Sochi. Admittedly, they really succeeded.
Sarapul (100 thousand people)
Sarapul is the cleanest among medium-sized cities of Russia (with a population of no more than 100 thousand people). The air here is very clean, there are practically no harmful emissions into the atmosphere. The city has many well-groomed green spaces. The only problem is water pollution. The fact is that waste from several enterprises (meat processing plant, poultry farm, machine-building plant) is discharged directly into the river. Nevertheless, in environmental terms, Sarapul stands out from hundreds of other small cities for the better.
Derbent (120 thousand people)
The ancient Dagestan city of Derbent is located in a picturesque mountain area. The air here is very clean, like water. There are few enterprises in the city, mainly they relate to the food industry, therefore they do not pollute the atmosphere much. The streets of Derbent are always very clean: Dagestanis honor their culture and respect the places in which they live.
Taganrog (250 thousand people)
Taganrog is a city with well-developed industry. Unfortunately, large enterprises cannot but cause a certain damage to the environment.
However, in recent years, dozens of serious events have been held in Taganrog, the purpose of which is to improve the environmental situation in the city. And they really prove their effectiveness. Not the least role in improving the environmental status in Taganrog is played by the Sea of Azov, namely its ability to self-clean.
In general, Taganrog is a clean and well-groomed city with a dozen beaches, many parks, squares and green areas. It should be noted and favorable, mild climate. The relative dryness of the air is more than offset by sea breezes.
Saransk (300 thousand people)
In the rating compiled by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of Russia, Saransk ranks first in the category of “Environmental Impact Management” and second in the category of “Quality of Consumed Water”.
Surprisingly, 85% of pollution in Saransk falls on automobiles. Enterprises practically do not worsen the state of the environment. To improve air quality, new bypass roads and interchanges are gradually being commissioned in the city. Only this step allowed Saransk to achieve an improvement in environmental performance by 55% over the past 10 years. For 5 years, the city has been using a separate waste collection system. And the artesian water consumed by the inhabitants of Saransk meets the highest international standards.
Ufa (1.1 million people)
Ufa is not only one of the largest economic and cultural centers of Russia, but also the cleanest city in our country with a population of more than 1 million people. According to the Russian Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology, it leads in two categories at once, one of which is the quality of water consumed. It is worth noting the high rate of improvement of the ecological state.
It is interesting: Ufa is the greenest city-millionaire of the Russian Federation. For every resident there are more than 202 square meters of green space! Almost 29% of the city is planted with trees. In the city, 9 parks are open, in which locals really like to relax.
What conclusion can be made based on these data? Big cities have very little chance of being considered environmentally friendly. And there is nothing to be surprised at. There are more enterprises in megacities, their roads are more loaded with transport. And the streets are usually very dirty. Partly, some residents can be blamed for this, partly for the poor work of public utilities. But be that as it may, do not forget about the main thing: each of us can try to do something so that next year his city will be included in the list of the cleanest.
How is the ecological rating of Russian cities compiled?
Such ratings can vary greatly. Their data depends on the counting system. For example, there are tables based on the opinions of local residents. In accordance with it, the top ten most favorable cities for people to live in are:
- Naberezhnye Chelny,
By the same principle, the most environmentally dirty cities in Russia are:
- Pushkino (Moscow region),
That is, the residents of Volokolamsk believe that they live in a more dirty village than Norilsk. The last year after year objectively takes the first line in environmental anti-ratings.
Therefore, for a relatively fair assessment, the following characteristics are taken into account:
- Availability and quantity of industrial facilities - factories,
- Number of vehicles
- The density of the central boiler houses,
- The area of green spaces per each inhabitant.
The last characteristic is conditional, it is considered the norm, based on the size of the settlement. For large cities, an indicator of 21 m 2 is considered acceptable, but for small settlements it is higher.
In addition, such types of pollution as light, sound and radiation are taken into account. The data on the state of the land allocated for the disposal of municipal solid waste are being studied. Based on all these data, an objective rating of environmentally friendly cities of Russia is compiled.
It cannot be fully argued that such an approach is the most correct. But it is calculated on accurate statistical indicators, while taking into account the opinions of citizens is a source for compiling a subjective table.
1st place - Sevastopol
The first line of the ranking is Sevastopol. The industry dismantled after the collapse of the union state, the reduction in the number of military and merchant ships (both sea and air) led to the city emitting a little more than 9 tons of annual gaseous waste.
According to experts, the greatest damage to him was inflicted in Soviet times, as well as during the subsequent 10 years after the collapse. Not only the working industry, but also the active deforestation, the implementation of the canal construction project, harmed the groundwater.
But in the XXI century, environmental pollution, despite the annual arrival of vacationing "savages", began to decline. Flora and fauna began to recover, and the city was rightly considered the most environmentally friendly, when compared with other settlements.
2nd place - Taganrog
The second place in the rating is Taganrog. The presence of a developed industry in a 250 thousandth settlement increases, in comparison with Sevastopol, the amount of harmful emissions into the atmosphere by half - up to 18 tons per year. The Don River also adds minuses, along which there is an increased concentration of hazardous substances containing detergents at the mouth.
Despite the fact that large enterprises, including metallurgical and combine plants, do not operate in Taganrog, the city is considered environmentally friendly. Partly this is facilitated by a favorable location on the shores of the Sea of Azov. Although the geographical location of the Makhachkala on the Caspian Sea did not help to avoid getting into anti-ratings.
3rd place - Sochi
The city of Sochi is completing the first three in the rating. Designed for tourism, industrial production in it occupies an insignificant proportion. Only the industrial industry is developing from it.
Therefore, the share of air pollution in the industrial sector does not exceed one sixth. The rest is accounted for by road, as well as sea and rail transport.
4th place - Grozny
Grozny - the industry built in the 20th century is destroyed, although 22 tons of annual waste to the atmosphere come from facilities such as Transmash, Elektropult-Grozny and Grozneftegaz. 90% of the city dates from the federal budget.
5th place - Kostroma
In Kostroma, there is no developed industry with the exception of the Fanplit plant. The city is surrounded by forests, rivers and lakes, and it has more than 140 green spaces and their number continues to increase.
6th place - Vladikavkaz
The reason for the good environmental situation in the capital of North Ossetia is due to a sharp reduction in industrial enterprises.
Elektrozinc non-ferrous metallurgy plant hinders rising in the rating. Without treatment facilities operating on old Soviet equipment, it becomes a source of sulfur dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. The situation is aggravated by the presence of a large number of personal obsolete vehicles.
7th place - Petrozavodsk
Petrozavodsk - geographical location - coniferous forests, Siberian landscape and Lake Onega - contribute to the good ecology of the village. The amount of harmful emissions into the atmosphere does not exceed 24 tons per year.
Their largest source is the Tyazhbummash plant, which is as busy as possible. The presence of a large number of personal vehicles adds to the problems.
8, 9, 10 places - Saransk, Tambov and Yoshkar-Ola
Top 10 of the most environmentally friendly Russian cities Saransk, Tambov and Yoshkar-Ola complete the rating. The amount of harmful emissions into the atmosphere is 24.5 tons, 25.5 tons and 26 tons, respectively. A favorable geographical position, poorly developed industry or the active introduction of treatment technologies, as in Saransk - all this becomes the reason for a favorable environmental situation.
Ecology of Russia
The environment of our country as a technologically developed state continues to suffer from harmful industries. The anthropogenic pollution of its shells has a detrimental effect on the Earth:
Most people on the planet are aggressive towards nature, and the Russians were no exception. As a result, our state has firmly strengthened its position among the leaders of the polluted world powers. And this despite our huge forests, accounting for 45% of the entire country.
Forest complex of Russia
By the way, about the forest. Large-scale fires in the taiga contribute to increasing carbon levels, which invariably worsens the climate. In some ways, the optimization of forest conservation is to blame.
Energy production and the environment
Thermal power plants and central boiler houses should be singled out among the most harmful industries. Using fossil fuels like organic minerals: coal and peat, as well as recyclable fuel oil - TPPs and the Central Committee saturate the air with solid particles and greenhouse gases.
Map of facilities with installed capacity designation
This entails thermal pollution. As a result, acid rains can occur over nearby territories, making a crushing contribution to the change in the microclimate of the region.
Water and water pollution
Water primarily reflects the ecological state of the region. Scientists have identified a relationship: the worse the quality of water, the more people get sick.This is especially true for large cities based on riverbanks.
Schedule of water pollution in Russia
Such settlements are oversaturated with industrial enterprises that poison ponds with toxic effluents. In addition, water penetrates deep into the soil, saturating the soil and underground sources with toxic elements.
Garbage in recent years has stood on a par with the main polluters of the country. A significant part of the waste is not decomposed. During this period, such accumulations amount to billions of tons in all regions of the country.
Schedule of waste in Russia
In every constituent entity of the Russian Federation, many unauthorized landfills are organized, the number of which continues to grow rapidly. The random storage of waste makes fertile land unusable. At the same time, landfills grow not only from household waste, but also from industrial waste, which can be radioactive.
If the state does not change its mind and does not begin active propaganda of a rational attitude to the environment, then our children and grandchildren will get a sad legacy. Garbage processing plants are beginning to appear in the country, and the number of toxic gas emissions into the atmosphere is gradually decreasing. Will the course of environmental policy of the Russian Federation be effective, time will tell.
Find out about the most environmentally friendly industrial cities in Russia from the video.
Top 10 most environmentally friendly cities in Russia in 2018-2019
To assign a degree of ecological purity to the city, scientists conduct a series of studies, from which indicators are then formed. The most significant analysis is the calculation of emissions of hazardous substances into the atmosphere. Among daily active pollutants, the following sources stand out:
- Plants and factories.
- Central boiler rooms.
When assessing the ecology of Russian cities, the area with green spaces per person is always taken into account. For example, in large cities, 21 m² per citizen is considered the norm. Compliance with this norm or its excess guarantees the urban environment more clean air, reduced amount of dirt and dust, less noise.
In the study of ecology, the criteria of sound, light, radiation pollution are also taken into account. The state of the soil under household waste is analyzed. The obtained data are passed on to the settlement administration for environmental protection measures.
Next is the rating of Russian cities, which are the most environmentally friendly according to scientists.
The capital of Mari-El is the unofficial name "Green City". Around it there are many forests, as well as many parks and squares directly in the city. Among the most visited recreation areas are pine and oak groves.
The water in the Malaya Kokshaga River, flowing through the center of the capital, is not of very good quality. Numerous communal drains of domestic and industrial facilities flow into its channel. In addition, treatment facilities have not changed for a long time.
Yoshkar-Ola is full of various enterprises, among which three industries stand out:
- chemical pharmaceutical
Most of them are located in industrial areas, in the south and in the city center. People prefer to have a personal vehicle, the number of which is growing from year to year. As a result, it increases the content of harmful particles in the air.
In the central part of the city there are buildings of culture and art, as well as the administration of Yoshkar-Ola. In addition, several state universities and the Technological University were located in the central part. Visitors will be able to see buildings of different periods, including merchant houses of the XIX century and buildings in the Art Nouveau style.
The city is full of Khrushchev, "Stalin", an improved layout. The main street is Sovetskaya. It housed many shops, cafes and offices.
For several years in a row, scientists awarded Tambov one of the places in the ranking of the top 10 of the cleanest Russian cities. Moreover, the annual pollution of harmful atmospheric substances is almost 25.5 thousand tons. Among the perpetrators of the damage are all the same industrial enterprises, with the following emission indicators:
- 28% - food industry,
- 20% - energy,
- 18.7% - mechanical engineering,
- 8% - chemical production.
An important role was played by new measures of economic incentives and environmental control, including environmental management fees (discharges, emissions, waste storage) and an increase in liability for violation of environmental laws.
Example: Pigment JSC upgraded the capture system for sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid vapor, hydrogen chloride, nitrogen oxides and others. Due to this, the emissions of harmful substances decreased by 3.5 times, from 1,500 to 400 tons / year.
In Tambov, more than a dozen parks for recreation with green spaces. The city regularly holds specialized events for improvement, and 2016 became the "Year of Ecology."
More recently, in Tambov was built a plant for the processing of garbage into granules. This was mainly achieved with the help of local environmentalists.
The capital of Mordovia with a population of more than 314 thousand also has many industrial enterprises that "systematically" polluted the environment. Since the city was founded on both banks of the Insar River, the waterway has received the greatest degree of pollution. At one time, it even entered the rating of the most polluted rivers in Europe.
For reference. Local authorities still recommend that residents of Saransk defend water before boiling or conduct local treatment.
View of the Cathedral of St. Fedor Ushakov, Saransk
During this period, the environmental situation in Saransk began to improve. A positive effect was achieved thanks to the modernization of technical facilities and the introduction of new treatment facilities. A fish began to reappear in the river.
The total amount of emissions from production does not exceed 24.5 tons per year. But the problem of the negative impact of vehicles on the environment remains acute.
The capital of Karelia with a population of 380,000 is located on the shores of Lake Onega. Around it grow forests of predominantly coniferous species, which is very similar to the Siberian landscape.
The most important source of pollution from the Soviet period remained the Tyazhbummash plant, which today does not operate at full capacity and leases most of its space. From now on, the total mass of atmospheric pollution does not exceed 23.5 thousand tons. Scientists have recorded that the environmental situation in Petrozavodsk over the post-Soviet period has improved eight times.
For reference. Petrozavodsk is experiencing a dominance of vehicles, as residents of the republic come to the capital, wanting to find good money and start a new life here.
The capital of North Ossetia-Alania is also at the epicenter of economic problems. The reduction of industrial enterprises made the republic poor. But along with this, the environmental situation in Vladikavkaz itself has improved significantly.
Vladikavkaz. Sunni mosque on the banks of the Terek
There remains the only polluter who cannot afford to install modern wastewater treatment plants - this is the company "Electrozinc", founded in 1906 by Belgian entrepreneurs. Worn-out, still Soviet, equipment becomes the cause of numerous accidents, the most tragic of which was the release of sulfur oxide on October 5, 2009. Then a gray veil of a poisonous cloud hung over the city.
The main pollutants also include old cars, of which there are a lot in the republic.
The city with almost a thousand-year history is included in the famous Golden Ring. Despite the long life, the industry of Kostroma was not developed on a large scale. The only serious source of pollution is the Fanplit industrial complex.
And so the city is located in a good landscape area and is surrounded by forests, lakes and small rivers.
Kostroma. Ipatiev Monastery
Spoils environmental indicator flowing through the city of Volga. It carries pollution in its waters, obtained upstream by the chemical enterprises of Yaroslavl.
Now in the territory of Kostroma there are 143 territories with green spaces. According to a specialist in industrial ecology, Alexander Glushchenko, the number of greenery in the city will regularly grow.
The Chechen capital survived the difficult times of the nineties of the last century. Almost the entire legacy of Soviet industry was destroyed. During this period, subsidies from the federal budget are enough to support the population.
Investments are needed for economic development, but investors are scared away by the militarized mood of the people. As a result, there are practically no industrial enterprises in the city and the atmosphere is not polluted. However, about 22 thousand tons of emissions are still produced by three organizations:
- Electric remote-Grozny.
Another source adversely affecting the ecological situation in the city is the lack of sewage in many of its areas.
And also after the rapid restoration of the city and all of Chechnya, an incredible amount of construction waste has accumulated on the territory. The problem with household landfills continues to increase sharply.
Some compare the present situation of Chechnya with post-war Vietnam. There was also heavy pollution, and plus everything, people experienced the effects of chemical attacks. At this time, the environmental situation in the republic is within the normal range.
Domofond.ru specialists conducted an annual study of how Russians rate cleanliness in their areas. Based on the survey, a rating of 150 cities of Russia was compiled. The first place was taken by the resort city of Anapa, and among the regions, the leaders in terms of cleanliness were the Krasnodar Territory and the Republic of Tatarstan. On average, residents of the country rated the cleanliness of the streets and courtyards slightly above average: by 5.9 points out of 10. The gap in estimates between the cleanest and most dirty city widened over the year.
Respondents were asked to rate the statement “In my area it’s clean, garbage is removed in a timely manner” on a scale of 1 to 10, where “1” means “completely disagree” and “10” means “completely agree”. For each city, the average score was calculated, which reflects the degree of satisfaction of residents with the cleanliness of the areas and the timeliness of garbage collection.
The national average was 5.9 points. This is slightly higher than last year (5.7 points). At the same time, the gap between the highest and the lowest ratings increased to 5.5 points against 3.6 points in 2017.
Of the 37,626 respondents, more than a quarter found the situation unsatisfactory: 26.4% of respondents rated the statement 1-3 points. At the same time, 36.6% agreed that it was clean in their cities and districts, assigning scores of 8 to 10. The same percentage of respondents gave an average score of 4 to 7.
The economy of the resort city of Sochi almost all consists of revenues from the tourism industry. As a result, the region did not and does not need to form industrial production. The only developing industry in this regard is the food industry.
Therefore, of all the harmful emissions into the atmosphere, only 16% is accounted for by organizations, the rest of the pollution occurs through the fault of transport: cars, railways, and marine.
After the construction of sports facilities for the 2014 Olympics in Sochi, they put the perfect order in place and try to maintain it. Sochi National Park occupies 2/3 of the city’s area, it is included in the list of UNESCO sites.
Chairman of the Sochi Public Environmental Council Vladimir Ostapuk: “Boxwood landings died 90%, they were destroyed by a boxwood moth butterfly. Destroyed about 2000 hectares of boxwood. Now palm trees are dying along the tracks, under the threat of the famous arboretum, where some palm trees are more than a hundred years old. Unfortunately, the pest - the red palm weevil - can be detected only when the branches begin to dry, and this is a year or two after it starts on a tree. "
Among the growing problems of the resort, an increase in the population after the Olympic Games and the dominance of vehicles are highlighted. And also the city suffers from insects brought along with soil from other countries. Pests multiply rapidly, without having natural enemies.
Environmental Assessment Criteria
In order to assess the ecological state of the city, scientists conduct a series of studies, which are then formed into indicators.
One of the main is the importance of emissions of hazardous substances into the atmosphere. Every city has plants and factories, many cars, boiler houses, even a person contributes to air pollution every day, therefore, the less emissions, the cleaner the air.
Another important indicator is the number of green spaces per 1 citizen. In large cities should be at least 21 m 2. In cities where this norm is observed or is exceeded, the air is cleaner, the amount of dust and dirt is reduced, and the noise level is reduced.
The following are also considered as criteria for the environmental situation: radiation, light, noise pollution, areas under solid household waste.
The city on the Azov coast became the homeland of A.P. Chekhov, Faina Ranevskaya and the favorite of modern cinema Pavel Derevyanko. With a population of a quarter of a million, Taganrog is striking in the scope of industry. Among the largest enterprises of the all-Russian scale, the following stand out:
- JSC "Taganrog Metallurgical Plant".
- JSC "Krasny Kotelshchik".
- JSC "Taganrog Combine Plant".
But despite the development of the industry, the total amount of gas emitted into the atmosphere does not exceed 18 thousand tons per year. This is primarily due to the modernization of production facilities and the introduction of treatment facilities of the last class.
The Don River, which brings a lot of harmful elements with a high content of detergents to the mouth, spoils the ecological situation, saturating them upstream. Therefore, the waters of the Taganrog Bay are considered polluted.
Interesting fact. The authorities of Taganrog still have not decided on which rails the city will fall: industrial or tourist. Therefore, there is an active development of both directions.
Rating of clean cities in Russia with a population of up to 100 thousand people
Naturally, considering millionaire cities on a par with small towns is not scientifically correct, therefore it is customary to distinguish the most environmentally friendly settlements depending on the number of inhabitants. So, for example, the top ten among medium-sized cities included:
- Beloretsk, which, despite the developed metallurgy and mechanical engineering, maintains a low level of emissions into the atmosphere.
- Gorno-Altaysk is the capital of the Altai Republic and, concurrently, the cleanest city in Russia, which is the administrative center of the subject. The city is located in a gorge, there are practically no tall buildings and large industrial enterprises.
- Mineralnye Vody is a resort city whose task is to keep both air, water and land clean, otherwise the healing effect of staying in this special climate will go away. The city is surrounded by greenery and is considered to be a beautiful and clean city of Russia.
- Balakhna is a city in the Nizhny Novgorod region with a long history and many cultural monuments, which are now being restored and protected. There are no large enterprises in the city that can significantly pollute the atmosphere, and those that exist use new technologies.
- The list of environmentally friendly cities of Russia with a population of up to 100 thousand people is headed by the Udmurt city of Sarapul, which is the second largest population in the subject, and also has a large industrial base, but despite this, the amount of air emissions is somewhat lower than in similar settlements.
The ten also included cities: Velikiye Luki, Revda, Belorechensk, Glazov, Krasnokamsk.
Rating of clean cities in Russia with a population of up to 250 thousand people
Of interest are also cities in which the number of inhabitants totals from 100 to 250 thousand (large).
For example, Obninsk, Kaluga Region, is a rapidly growing science city, with a rich history and a large number of attractions. The village is buried in green spaces.
Kislovodsk is a place of healing for many Russians and foreign tourists, the unique climate and the presence of recreational resources allowed the city to create an extensive resort area. Solving the question, in which city of Russia there is clean air, we can say that Kislovodsk is suitable for all criteria: special flora, mountain atmosphere and good ventilation (the city is located in the gorge in the direction of the wind) - all this gives residents a particularly healthy air that fills every cell of the body .
A similar city with little atmospheric pollution, a huge green area and unique natural properties is Essentuki.
Nazran is a city in Ingushetia, where annual population growth is observed, but the amount of emissions does not increase, since the climate is mild, there is practically no heavy industry, and the main specialization is military.
1 place among the large ecologically clean cities of Russia is Derbent. A very ancient and beautiful city located in the foothills. The moderate climate, the absence of large highways and large industrial centers make Derbent attractive for living from an environmental point of view.
In addition to these, ecologically clean cities of Russia with a population of up to 250 thousand people include: Khasavyurt, Arzamas, Oktyabrsky, Novoshakhtinsk, Kaspiysk.
The leader of the ranking of the most environmentally friendly cities in Russia, the pearl of the Crimea. Sevastopol is imprisoned for military service, therefore, emissions here mainly occur due to exhaust gases from vehicles, ships and aircraft. In total, no more than 9.3 tons of gaseous wastes enter the atmosphere.
Especially the city suffered from environmental pollution in the Soviet period and all the nineties. Forests were cut down, plains fed cattle driven from Ukraine. The constructed canal had a negative impact on groundwater.
Certain damage was inflicted by resting "savages", because of which forests burned, plants were destroyed and territories were littered. Since the beginning of the XXI century, Sevastopol has experienced a decline in anthropogenic pollution. The city was given a special status.
A significant part of the heavy production capacity was dismantled. The revival of species of flora and fauna has begun. The local beaches are kept clean, mainly by the local population.
For reference. Sevastopol remains known as a major producer and processor of fish and seafood.
The cleanest large cities in Russia
Big cities in modern realities most often attract young people, because there are great prospects, there is where to develop, learn something new, it is easier to find a job.
Among settlements with a population of up to 1 million people, it is worth highlighting the cleanest cities in Russia for living.
The bottom five lines are:
- Yoshkar-Ola - a city in the Republic of Mari El, is its capital. The settlement consists of 50% of the city forests, pastures, hayfields, garden and country cooperatives, which has a great effect on the air condition in the city. In addition, the city is surrounded on all sides by forests.
- Tambov. Despite the fact that the city has heavy industry, modern technology and rational landscaping allows maintaining the ecological balance.
- Saransk is a compact settlement with good natural characteristics. Active air circulation and a temperate climate allow timely attributing atmospheric pollution from engineering, electric power, and metallurgy facilities, while utilities adequately cope with the actual waste, which, in combination, allows Saransk to occupy a worthy environmental position.
- Petrozavodsk is the capital city of the Republic of Karelia, which has hardly achieved modern ecological "success". Since the 90s, there has been an active re-equipment of all enterprises with modern equipment, which has reduced emissions by 8 times.
- Vladikavkaz is a beautiful mountain city, with one of the largest zinc production located on its territory. For a long time it was the main polluter of the village, but over the past 10 years it has been converted, and Vladikavkaz breathed freely, so much so that it entered the top of the most environmentally friendly.
The following are major environmental cities
There are still many cities in Russia where the environmental situation does not improve, and in some settlements it continues to deteriorate. Despite this, people live there, because they cannot leave their homeland for numerous reasons.
These cities have been actively polluted since the mid-fifties of the last century. Industrial giants were built on their territories, which continue to work without slowing down. Along with the development of industry, megacities also expanded, and the number of inhabitants and waste products increased.
In this period, world politicians are increasingly paying attention to the environment. The Russian authorities are trying to keep up with their Western and European colleagues. But merciless corruption in regulatory authorities destroys many projects in the bud.
For most activists, finding the right decision to protect nature is an impossible task. Proper implementation of environmental legislation could improve the environmental situation in the country.
Which cities are “outsiders” in terms of environmental situation?
The third and second places are shared by two capitals - St. Petersburg and Moscow. These major cities receive the main pollution along with automobile emissions, which make up more than 80% of the total mass of waste. Smog in these settlements is constantly present in the sky. Among the population, lung diseases occur in every 4 residents of these cities.
For many years, Norilsk of the Krasnoyarsk Territory has been the leader in the ranking of the dirtiest cities. Its emissions into the atmosphere amount to almost 2000 thousand tons per year. Norilsk Nickel is a city-forming enterprise and an important company in the state, however it is he who is the main source of dangerous atmospheric pollution that applies not only to residents of the city, but also to the entire subject.
The most environmentally friendly large cities in Russia (with a population of 250 thousand to 1 million people)
12th place - Stavropol (Stavropol Territory). The population is 419.8 thousand people. Emissions - 26.6 thousand tons, stationary sources - 16.2%.
11th place - Vologda (Vologda Oblast). The population is 308.2 thousand people. Emissions - 26.6 thousand tons, stationary sources - 14.6%.
10th place - Yoshkar-Ola (Mari El). Population - 260.3 thousand people. Emissions - 26.2 thousand tons, stationary sources - 45.4%.
9th place - Tambov (Tambov region). The population is 285 thousand people. Emissions - 25.5 thousand tons, stationary sources - 33.3%.
8th place - Saransk (Mordovia). The population is 299.2 thousand people. Emissions - 24.1 thousand tons, stationary sources - 29.4%.
7th place - Petrozavodsk (Karelia). The population is 272.1 thousand people. Emissions - 23.4 thousand tons, stationary sources - 13.5%.
6th place - Vladikavkaz (North Ossetia-Alania). The population is 308.3 thousand people. Emissions - 22.8 thousand tons, stationary sources - 12.6%.
5th place - Kostroma (Kostroma region). The population is 273.4 thousand people. Emissions - 22.6 thousand tons, stationary sources - 31.8%.
4th place - Grozny (Chechnya). The population is 280.2 thousand people. Emissions - 21.9 thousand tons, stationary sources - 49.7%.
3rd place - Sochi (Krasnodar Territory). The population is 400 thousand people. Emissions - 21.2 thousand tons, stationary sources - 16.9%.
2nd place - Taganrog (Rostov region). The population is 253.5 thousand people. Emissions - 18 thousand tons, stationary sources - 38.8%.
1st place - Sevastopol. The population is 414.3 thousand people. Emissions - 10.4 thousand tons, stationary sources - 42.1%.
As for the cities with millionaires, they are fully included in the ranking of the most environmentally polluted cities in Russia.
Resorts of the Krasnodar Territory - the cleanest cities in the country
The rating was headed by the resort city of Anapa (Krasnodar Territory) with 8.1 points. In second place is Surgut (Tyumen region), which received 8 points exactly. Saransk slightly behind him: the cleanliness of the streets of the capital of Mordovia, citizens rated a little less than 8 points. In addition to Anapa, two more cities of the Krasnodar Territory also got into the top 10: Armavir (7.7 points) took the fifth position in the ranking, and Gelendzhik (7.6 points) was in tenth place. The cities in Tatarstan also received high marks: 7.6 points each from Almetyevsk and Naberezhnye Chelny, who took eighth and ninth places.
With the exception of Grozny and Gelendzhik, cities in the ten cleanest cities in the country show positive annual dynamics. The purity rating increased by almost 0.8 points in Saransk, by 0.7 points in Surgut and Almetyevsk, by 0.4 points in Anapa, by 0.3 points in Armavir and Naberezhnye Chelny.
The difference in ratings between the first and tenth places is very small - 0.5 points: the leading cities are very densely located. The leading region in the ranking of cleanliness was the Krasnodar Territory. Of the seven cities of the region that fell into the all-Russian rating, there is not one that received a score below 6.6 points - this is a very good result.