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Ancient civilizations, the secrets of which are still not solved

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Ancient world - The period in the history of mankind, distinguished between the prehistoric period and the beginning of the Middle Ages in Europe. In other regions, the temporal boundaries of antiquity may differ from European ones. For example, the end of the ancient period in China is sometimes considered the emergence of the Qin empire, in India - the Chola empire, and in America - the beginning of European colonization.

The term "classical antiquity" (or antiquity) usually refers to Greek and Roman history, which begins from the first Olympics (776 BC). This date almost coincides with the traditional founding date of Rome (753 BC). The end date of European ancient history is usually considered the year of the fall of the Western Roman Empire (476 AD), and sometimes the date of the death of Emperor Justinian I (565), the appearance of Islam (622) or the beginning of the reign of Emperor Charlemagne ( 800 g.).

1 Continent Lemuria / 4 million years ago

The origins of all ancient civilizations originate from the myth of the mysterious continent of Lemuria, which went under water many millions of years ago. Its existence has been repeatedly mentioned in myths of different nations and philosophical works. They talked about a highly developed race of humanoid apes, who had an excellent education and developed architecture. According to legend, he was in the Indian Ocean and the main evidence of its existence is the island of Madagascar, inhabited by lemurs.

2 Hyperborea / until 11540 BC

The mysterious land of Hyperborea for many years excites the minds of scientists and researchers who want to find at least some evidence of its existence. So, at the moment there is an opinion that Hyperborea was located in the Arctic and was inhabited by the ancestors of the Slavs. Then the continent was not covered with ice, but blossomed and smelled. And this, by the way, is possible, because scientists have established that 30-15000 BC the Arctic had a favorable climate.

It is worth noting that attempts to find Hyperborea have been practiced for a long time, for example, Germany and the USSR during the Second World War sent expeditions to search for a lost country. But it was not possible to establish whether there really was a country that became the progenitor of the Slavs.

3 Aroe civilization / 13000 BC

This civilization belongs to the category of mythical, despite the fact that there are many buildings proving the existence of peoples on the islands of Micronesia, Polynesia and Easter. In new Caledonia, ancient cement statues were discovered dating back to 10950 BC.

According to legend, the Aroe civilization, or Kingdom of the Sun, was formed in the Pacific Ocean after the disappearance of the continent of Lemuria. Among the indigenous inhabitants of these islands legends about ancestors capable of flying through the air still go.

4 Civilizations of the Gobi Desert / approximately 10,000 BC

Another mysterious civilization, the existence of which is being debated. Now the Gobi desert is the most sparsely populated place on the planet, arid and destructive. However, it is believed that many millennia ago there lived a certain civilization of the White Island, which stood on the same level with Atlantis. She was called the country of Agarti, the underground city, Shambhala and the land of Hsi Wang Mu.

In those years, the desert was the sea, and the White Island towered on it a green oasis. Scientists have confirmed that this was indeed so, but the date is embarrassing - the sea from the Gobi desert disappeared 40 million years ago. Whether a settlement of sages could exist there at that time, or later, is not scientifically proven.

5 Atlantis / 9500 BC

This mythical state is perhaps the most famous in the whole world. There is no exact evidence that there really was an island that went under water along with a highly developed civilization.But until now, sailors, historians and adventurers are looking for an underwater city filled with the treasures of ancient Atlantis.

The main evidence for the existence of Atlantis is the work of Plato, who described the war of this island with Athens, as a result of which the Atlanteans simply went under water along with the island. There are many theories and myths about this civilization, and even entire scientific trends.

6 Ancient China / 8500 BC - our days

Chinese civilization is recognized as one of the oldest in the world. Scientists believe that its first rudiments appeared even 8000 years ago BC. Written sources record the existence of a state called China as far back as 3,500 years ago. According to this, archaeologists discover shards of pots in China between the ages of 17-18000 years BC. The ancient and rich history of China showed that this state, ruled by dynasties for many millennia, was one of the most developed and strongest in the world.

7 Civilization of Osiris / until 4000 AD

Since officially this civilization cannot be considered existing, one can only guess about the dates of its heyday. According to legend, the Osirians were the progenitors of Egyptian civilization and, accordingly, lived in the Mediterranean basin before they appeared.

Of course, all speculations about this civilization are based on unreliable facts, for example, that the Osurian civilization died due to the fact that the death of Atlantis provoked the flooding of the Mediterranean basin. There is no exact evidence of these events, so we can only consider the mass of flooded cities at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea as a confirmation of a civilization that has gone under water.

8 Ancient Egypt / 4000 BC - VI-VII centuries. AD

Ancient Egyptian civilization existed for about 40 centuries and reached its peak in the middle of this time period. To study this culture, there is a separate science of Egyptology, which is engaged in research of the diverse history of this empire.

Ancient Egypt had everything that was needed for development and prosperity — fertile land in the Nile Valley, religion, a government system, and an army. Despite the fact that Ancient Egypt fell and was absorbed by the Roman Empire, there are still traces of this powerful civilization on the planet - the huge Sphinx, ancient pyramids and a lot of historical artifacts.

9 Sumerians and Babylon / 3300 BC - 1000 BC

For a long time, the Sumerian civilization was credited with the title of the first in the world. The Sumerians were the first to engage in crafts, agriculture, pottery, and construction. In 2300 BC, this territory was captured by the Babylonians, who, led by Babylon, became the cultural and political center of the Ancient World. Both of these civilizations are the strongest states of Ancient Mesopotamia.

8. Tiwanaku (1,500 B.C. - 1,200 B.C.)

In the Andean Highlands, Bolivia, lie the impressive ruins of Tiwanaku, one of the oldest archaeological sites in the Andes. The ruins, which include the Akapan pyramid, the largest relic of archaeological sites and the oldest pre-Hispanic building in South America, represent the golden age of Tiwanaku. Considered to be the forerunner of the Incan empire, this civilization existed for more than 2700 years (three times as many as the Roman Empire), but disappeared until around 1000 AD, and the inhabitants eventually left these lands.

10 Ancient Greece / 3000 BC - I century BC.

This ancient state was called Hellas and was considered one of the most powerful in the ancient world. Greece, this territory was called the Romans, who captured Hellas in the first century BC. Over the three thousand years of its existence, the Greek empire has left behind a rich history, a lot of architectural monuments and many literary masterpieces that are still popular. What are the myths of ancient Greece?

Maya 11/2000 BC - XVI century AD

Legends about the power and greatness of this amazing civilization still go and push people to search for ancient treasures.In addition to countless riches, Maya Indians possessed unique knowledge in astronomy, which allowed them to develop an accurate calendar. They also had amazing knowledge in construction, thanks to which their devastated cities are still included in the UNESCO heritage list.

This highly developed civilization had developed medicine, agriculture, water supply systems and a rich culture. Unfortunately, in the Middle Ages this empire began to fade, and with the advent of the conquistadors it completely disappeared.

12 Ancient Rome / 753 BC - V century AD

The Ancient Roman Empire was one of the most powerful in the history of the Ancient World. She left behind a bright mark in history, enslaved many small states and won a lot of bloody wars. Ancient Rome had its own mythology, a powerful army, a control system and, at its peak, was the center of civilization.

The Roman Empire gave the world a rich cultural heritage and history, which still excites the minds of scientists. Like all ancient empires, it died away due to exorbitant ambitions and plans to conquer the whole world.

All these ancient civilizations left behind a huge cultural heritage and a lot of mysteries that have yet to be solved. Will mankind be able to find out whether some empires existed or not, time will tell. In the meantime, we can only be satisfied with conjectures and already existing facts.

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Sumerians

According to scientists, the Sumerians inhabited southern Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Civilization appeared around 3300 years BC. e. It was a developed people who were engaged in agriculture. It was the Sumerians who laid the foundation for writing, inventing cuneiform writing. Plates with the names of cities have survived to this day.

Excavations have helped scientists discover traces of social inequality. The top of the social system occupied the nobility, and the lowest stratum included soldiers and prisoners of war. Also, the Sumerians had knowledge in the field of astrology, developed a number system. Therefore, today mankind uses the dial, separating the hours, days and months.

2000 years BC e. the Sumerians mixed with the Akkadians, which contributed to the development of the great kingdom - Babylon.

Ancient Egypt

The ancient Egyptians created the foundation of the modern world. Civilization was born 4000 years BC. e., but the knowledge of the inhabitants in mathematics, astronomy, medicine is amazing. Ancient Egypt has existed for more than 40 centuries, its history is divided into several periods.

Civilization was located in northeast Africa along the Nile River. Because of the proximity of water in ancient Egypt, malaria and other parasitic diseases flourished. Local healers were the first to invent cures for diseases and alternative medicine methods. The language of the Egyptians is considered the most ancient, in the museums are stored tables with hieroglyphs and signs.

It was the Egyptians who built the pyramids and sphinx. At one time they knew geometry, invented sundials and water clocks. As a result, Ancient Egypt was absorbed by the Roman Empire.

Ancient Rome

A powerful ancient civilization was formed in 753 BC. e. and existed until the 5th century AD e. The great Roman Empire left a bright mark in history, as well as a memory for future generations. These are not only architectural monuments, but also Latin, Roman law, and the Christian religion.

The history of the world mentions the vivid mythology of Ancient Rome, a strong army and bloody wars that led the peoples to conquer territories. But there are also little-known facts. Everyone knows that the main entertainment in Rome was the gladiator fights. But few people know that the blood of the dead gladiators was used as a cure for epilepsy.

Even then, residents monitored the condition of the teeth. Archaeologists found a jaw with dentures, only representatives of the nobility could brag of a full mouth of teeth.

Roman civilization faded due to exorbitant ambitions and greed.

Chavin civilization (900 - 250 BC)

Chavin is one of the oldest South American cultures of the pre-Columbian era, located on the territory of modern Peru. As the Middle East was the center of many great cultures of the Old World, so South America “sheltered” the civilizations of the two western continents. In the image of many ancient cultures, the Chavin civilization was a religious society. The name itself comes from the religious city of Chavin de Huantar, the former capital of all settlements.

According to archaeologists, the unique geography of Chavin provided them with the successful cultivation of many crops, including potatoes, quinoa and corn. Although a study of the remains of the Chavinians showed that their main diet consisted of the first two crops, and much less often from corn.

The architectural style of Chavin culture was transmitted through temples to worship the gods. They were built taking into account the highlands of Peru. To avoid destruction during the rainy season, Chavinians built complex drainage systems with canals running under the temples.

Ancient Greece

Initially, the civilization of the ancient world was called Hellas, but after the conquest of the territory by the Romans in the 1st century BC. e., the state was nicknamed Greece. Ancient Greece began its existence 3000 years BC. e.

In the ancient world mythology was developed, which attributed to men unprecedented abilities. Despite this, many Greeks were afraid of water, because they could not swim. The first Olympic Games were organized here. Interestingly, playing sports was taken naked. Also in Ancient Greece there was an ancient theater, where tragedies with massacres were shown. Actors could only be men who played female roles.

In the 2nd century AD e. a tourist guide has been created. The author Pausanias invited to visit interesting places in Greece and Ancient Hellas.

Civilization of the Olmecs (1200 - 400 BC)

The Olmec tribes lived in tropical areas of modern Mexico (the current states of Tabasco and Veracruz). It is noteworthy that the name of civilization is rather arbitrary, since it means only one small tribe who lived in this area. Olmec is considered one of the first Mexican and South American cultures, the prosperity of which took place from 1200 to 400 BC. e.

Olmec settlements existed until the change in weather factors, which became unsuitable for normal life. The word olmec itself means rubber, which the tribes traded throughout Mesoamerica. The Olmecs left behind many architectural monuments and artifacts, for example, vessels for fish, a face mask made of jade and the head of the "African".

This fascinating article will tell you about other mysterious structures of the ancient world on thebiggest.ru.

Ancient China

Chinese civilization is one of the oldest in the world. It is believed that it originated 8500 years BC. e. It was here that paper, compass and typography were invented.

The history of the ancient world mentions that football arose in China. During the reign of the Han Dynasty, residents entertained themselves with a game of zhu ke, which is a type of football. Also in the 2000s BC. e. Chinese people invented the lunar calendar with twelve zodiac signs. In ancient China, polygamy was practiced. Harems with hundreds of women were owned by wealthy people.

Indisputable evidence of a developed civilization is the Great Wall of China. The construction still stands, and was built in the 3rd century BC. e.

The developed and powerful civilization of the Maya Indians began to form in 2000 BC. e. The ancient peoples inhabited South America. Mayans were well versed in astronomy and mathematics. It is believed that the Mayans invented zero.

The knowledge of the ancient people in the construction helped to build solid buildings, which are included in the UNESCO heritage. The Indians were engaged in agriculture, and also developed a water supply system. The civilization of Mesoamerica already then made rubber products.

The Mayan world began to fade away when the conquistadors came to earth who were surprised that they had met such a developed culture.

The Hittites Civilization (1600 - 1178 BC)

The Hittites are considered the first tribes who managed to mine iron and make weapons and tools out of it. Basically, the first Hittite settlements were in the territory of modern Turkey (Anatolia). Despite the broader framework of the existence of the Hittite kingdom, the heyday of their culture dates from 1600 - 1178 years BC. e. The power of the Hittites directly depended on the acquired skills in processing iron, which allowed the formation of the strongest army of that time.

And they are also credited with the invention of a war chariot, which for many years has become the main weapon in wars. At the peak of his power, the Hittite ruler Muwatalli II launched a military campaign against Egypt to capture the lands of modern Palestine and Syria. The war lasted about 15 years, culminating in the signing of a peace treaty, which became the first such document in the history of mankind.

The decline of the Hittite kingdom is associated with the concept of bronze collapse (the transitional period from the Bronze to the Iron Age), when the so-called peoples of the sea began their resettlement on the territory of the Egyptians and Hittites, simultaneously conquering all warring settlements. The most significant role in ending the Hittite rule in Asia Minor was played by the Phrygians, who seized their lands in the 1200s BC. e.

Indus Valley Civilization

Indian civilization appeared around 2600 BC. e. It is also called the Khrapp civilization, located along the Indus River. During excavations, archaeologists discovered cities with an excellent layout, the buildings were erected from burnt bricks and were equipped with bathrooms and running sewage.

Residents of the city were able to accurately measure distances, mass and time. Among them were skillful artisans who created clay products, and also developed a wagon for transporting grain, wheat, and barley.

The breakdown of Indian civilization was facilitated by prolonged drought, the development of infectious diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis.

Civilization of Caral

The ancient city was located in what is now Peru from 2600 BC. e. This is one of those nations that is ahead of its time, erecting pyramids and other intricate structures.

Scientists speak of Caral as a well-developed state with a knowledge of diplomacy. During the excavation, they did not find weapons and signs of war. The knowledge of residents in architecture and medicine can not be explained. Even then, they knew how to manage wind energy, and willow was used for headache medications.

The architectural structures of the Karalyans are still standing today, entering the UNESCO heritage. Good safety of buildings is due to the knowledge of residents in earthquake resistance technology.

Mayan Civilization (1200 BC - 900 CE)

The Mayans were perhaps the most developed Mesoamerican civilization, having gone through a period of formation, prosperity and decline. Mayan prosperity dates back to 1200 - 250 years BC. e. Their settlements were located in the modern territories of Mexico, El Salvador, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras. Maya Indians own the invention of hieroglyphic writing - the only one known in Mesoamerica.

In addition to manuscripts, Mayans are known for their calendar, which made a lot of noise at the end of 2012, because it was supposed to end in December, which many interpreted as a hint at the end of the world. In fact, everything turned out to be a myth or a misinterpretation of contemporaries. The Mayans were pagans, there were about 160 in their pantheon, each of which represented one aspect of everyday life.

The sunset period of this culture is dated 800 - 900 years BC. e. At this time, the tribes leave their stone cities. Scientists and historians still cannot agree on why this happened. Despite the collapse of the Mayan civilization, she left behind impressive architectural monuments and works of art.The Europeans who came after the discoveries of Columbus considered the local population savages, however, 3 out of 10 ancient civilizations on our list belonged to the American continents, which suggests the opposite.

Civilization Tiwanaku

The ancient world of Tiwanaku arose in 1600 BC. e. Civilization is considered the progenitor of the Incas. The territory was located in the Andes on the shore of Lake Titicaca. The people built such cities:

The inhabitants of Tiwanaku have created a working canal, which has supplied water for irrigation of fields. This development even today looks amazing. Ancient builders erected such architectural monuments:

  • Akapan pyramid,
  • Temples of Putuni, Kalasasaya,
  • The gates of the sun.

It is hard to imagine that the ancient people could use polished stone and make perfect round holes in it.

It is difficult for modern humanity to imagine how in a short period of time people managed to develop enough to use knowledge in astronomy, mathematics, and medicine. And ancient civilizations today are full of unsolved mysteries.

Civilizations of Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is the interfluve of the Tigris and Euphrates. It is believed that it was there that the oldest civilization (4-3 thousand BC) of the Ancient World - the Sumerians, was located. Their origins are still unknown, because in Mesopotamia, the Sumerians were alien people from the island of Delmun, which is not on any ancient map. The Sumerians were skilled farmers. Their cities Uruk, Sippar, Kish and others had a wide irrigation system. They had their cuneiform writing. A feature of this civilization was the ability to smel metals, deep astronomical knowledge and a high degree of urbanization of the state. The technology of the Sumerians was far ahead of many other nations that developed in parallel with them.

Fig. 1. Centers of agriculture according to Vavilov.

The main cultural heritage of the Sumerians is the myth of the Anunaki and the creation of man. According to modern interpretation, man was created by the Anunaki using genetic engineering as a slave to perform hard physical work on the “gods”.

In the 3rd millennium BC the Sumerians were consumed by the growing power of Babylon.

Fig. 2. Sumerian city.

African civilization

The state of Ancient Egypt arose along the banks of the Nile around 4 millennium BC. The Egyptians had a unique religion, numbering more than 3 thousand different gods.

The Egyptians left behind a huge number of artifacts, including not only pyramids and sarcophagi, but also a huge number of hieroglyphs, ceramics and papyrus.

The Egyptians report an even more ancient state - Punt. Many expeditions for goods exchange were equipped there, but there is very little information about it. Punt is believed to be the civilization of Ethiopia.

Mayan civilization

Native American Mesoamerican civilization arose about 4 thousand years ago. The people were represented by many city-states akin to the Sumerian - they developed agriculture. In addition, the Mayans achieved great success in carving but jade, sculpture and painting. Their astronomical calculations were far ahead of time and were incredibly accurate. The Mayan people built stone pyramids akin to the Egyptian ones (according to another version - they came to the ready-made rebuilt cities abandoned by the previous civilization) and observatories to observe celestial bodies.

Fig. 3. The Mayan Pyramids.

In the beginning of the 21st century, the Mayan calendar, ending in 2012, became widely known, which created a hypothesis about the mathematically calculated date of the end of the world. However, studies have shown that the Mayan priests simply calculated the time with a margin, and by 2012 their descendants should have simply updated the data. The calendar was divided into three parts - religious (260 days), practical (365 days) and chronological (360 days).

Civilizations of India and China

The civilization of China arose about 5,000 years ago along the Yellow River. The legendary period of the Three sovereigns of the five emperors was the beginning of their statehood.Despite the isolation of the Chinese, their achievements, besides china, they will reveal to the world much later than the rest of civilizations.

Along the Indus and Ganges rivers, a civilization of India arose. This happened in the 3rd millennium BC. India's fame was brought not only by the complex caste system of relationships, but also by the legend of the “war of the gods” in the area of ​​the city of Mohenjo-Daro. They had their own unique language and script. Hindus have been good mathematicians and builders since ancient times, and medicine has reached a high level in India.

General characteristics of ancient civilizations

While tribal relations existed in Europe, the first states appeared in the main “Vavilov” centers of agriculture. The role of the most ancient civilizations is that, thanks to their location scattered around the planet, humanity begins to form trade relations, foreign policy, unique linguistic and racial groups. The specialization of production and the first religious polytheistic cults are being formed.

Origin of the people

Australian Aborigines are part of the proto-historical African diaspora. However, this was not a simple migration of people to Australia, but a wide “black belt” that passed through tropical, subtropical and temperate zones even before the migration of Africans to Europe and Asia as a result of climate change.

Aborigines migrated to Australia about 40,000 years ago and were one of the first groups of people to leave the African continent.

Aboriginal Australia had between 200 and 300 languages. Their language has characteristic features in suffixes and prefixes that are identical to African languages. In particular, the linguistic group Mende, which was widespread throughout the Sahara and India among blacks who migrated there in prehistoric times.

Religion of the people

A key aspect of Australian Aboriginal faith is Dreaming. At the heart of this lies faith in powerful creatures that have arisen from the earth, created or created humans, animals and plants. Dreamers continue to control the natural world, but their willingness to release the forces of fertility depends on whether people continue to perform certain rituals.

In the 19th century, the Wesleyan Missionary Society sent missionaries to preach among Aboriginal people. By the mid-19th century, missionary settlements were erected across Australia. As a result of their activities, more than 2/3 of Australian Aboriginal people consider themselves Christians.

Want to know everything

Somehow I showed you the oldest building in the world. And here is the largest and best-preserved discovered Neolithic settlement (New Stone Age). The earliest cultural layers found date back to 7400 BC. e. The settlement existed until 5600 BC. e.

Chatal-Guyuk is the oldest city in Anatolia. Anatolia in translation from ancient Greek literally means East. So the ancient Greeks called Asia Minor. Since the 20s of this century, the Asian part of Turkey has been so called. Anatolia did not attract researchers of ancient civilizations before, but in 1961-1963 the English archaeologist D. Mellart unearthed here the amazing and unique ancient settlement of Chatal-Guyuk. It caused a passionate debate. Most immediately recognized this first real city.

Other scholars have argued that this is the very first real civilization in the world.

Photo 2.

For a long time, science was dominated by the belief that the most ancient civilization on Earth was Sumerian. Originating in Mesopotamia, agricultural culture spread first in the Middle East, and only then its centers appeared in Turkey and Europe. As for Anatolia (the region of central and southern Turkey), it gained a reputation as a "barbarian outskirts." And what was the astonishment of the scientific world when it turned out that it was Anatolia that was the first center of human civilization!

This sensational discovery, which fundamentally turned our ideas about the course of history and the level of development of people of the Neolithic era, is connected with the name of the English archaeologist Professor James Mellart. However, starting in 1956 to search, he was just a young and not very experienced graduate student. Subsequently, Mellart admitted that he did not count on such a sensational result. He just wanted to check what exactly is lurking under a small hill near the village of Hajilar, which a local teacher told him about. From time to time, peasants came across various finds.

The hill was small - 130-140 meters in diameter and five meters high, and its appearance as if did not promise anything promising. However, Mellart began to dig. And then it became clear why the height of the hill is so small. Usually, if people live in the same place for a long time, over many centuries, then the ground level gradually rises as the so-called cultural layer accumulates. But on this settlement the ground level almost did not rise, because every time after another disaster - a fire, a raid of enemies, etc. - the settlement was rebuilt again already in a new place, next to the old ashes.

Thus a peculiar "horizontal cut" of various eras was formed. Radiocarbon analysis data showed that the best preserved layer dates back to the 5th millennium BC. And the most ancient was two thousand years older and dated back to the end of VIII - the beginning of the VII millennium BC. And it was not just an ancient settlement - it was a settlement of the most ancient farmers! This was clearly evidenced by clay-storaged grain storages, stone inserts for sickles, barley grains, emmer wheat, wild odnozerennitsa and lentils. And, as in Jericho, the people here did not know ceramics. Archaeologists in Hajilar did not meet clay figures.


When about 80-85 centuries ago a long transgression of the Caspian Sea began and the waters of all the major lakes in Africa still continued to go beyond their shores, then the construction of Chatal-Guyuk began. This was the longest flood period. There is no doubt that a very large increase in humidity took place throughout the hemisphere at this time, and perhaps throughout the Earth, and usually the arid valleys of Antalya were covered with lush vegetation. Herds of onager, wild boar, red deer, bear, lions and leopards were found here. Grapes, pears, apples, pomegranates, walnuts, fig palms grew. The remains of all these animals and plants were found during excavations in Chatal-Guyuk.

Photo 3.

Due to the peculiarity of the exit system, the outer part of the settlement was a massive wall, and other defensive structures were not needed. The defenders, armed with a bow with arrows, slings and spears, could well repel the gangs of marauding robbers who dare to attack the town, so no evidence of murder was found. "

Photo 4.

Inside each house there is a large clay platform (ottoman) for sleeping and working, a stove with a flat arch and a niche in the wall, which usually serves as a kitchen. It is difficult to say how many inhabitants there were in the city, but if it was all built up just as densely, the population could reach up to 20 thousand. However, given that this was the Stone Age, experts suggest that there were 5-6 thousand inhabitants. But since no more than 100-150 people lived in settlements in most of Europe at that time, this figure was also very significant. Therefore, many call Chatal-Guyuk a city.

Photo 5.

Life expectancy at that time was quite high. On average, judging by the burials, men lived for about 35 years, women for about 30, and elders lived to be 60 years old. The infant mortality rate was high, so the average life expectancy was quite low. On average, 4.2 children were born for every woman, of which 1.8 died on average, 2.4 children survived for each family.

Photo 6.

The main occupation of most residents is the cultivation of cereals. At that time, the simplest canals were already being built for field irrigation. Mostly cattle were bred, a sheep appeared, but it still differed little in structure from wild, but the goat was already completely domestic. They continued to hunt for onager, semi-immigrant, wild boar, red deer, bear, lion (or leopard). Even bones of fish and neck found. They ate vegetables and fruits, which, judging by their bones and leftovers, grew here in abundance.

Photo 7.

The tools were made of large stone knife-shaped plates: bow, arrows, slings, spears. And magnificent daggers from large retouched pieces of stone. The guns were made of excellent volcanic glass - obsidian. There were a lot of him in the settlement. This is not surprising, because the city is located near a large deposit of this valuable raw material for tools. From here, obsidian spread over thousands of kilometers throughout the Near and Middle East. Mellart writes of this: “Chatal-Guyuk had a monopoly on the trade of obsidian with 3-Western Anatolia, Cyprus and the Levant.

A remarkable mural from the sanctuary of horizon VII depicts the city and at some distance from it an eruption of a volcano, possibly Hasan-Dag (deposits of obsidian formed as a result of its eruption - G.M.). The blanks for the tips of the obsidian spears are found in pouches under the floors of the houses; sometimes their number reaches 23: apparently, they were stored here as a treasure. In exchange for obsidian, a beautiful layered flint was delivered from Syria, from which daggers and other tools were made. "

Photo 8.

Shells for beads, as well as alabaster, marble, black and brown limestone and other types of stone, from which magnificent vessels, beads, pendants, veneered, grain-grinders, mortars, pestles, figurines were brought in large quantities from the Mediterranean coast. From diorite, which was brought from the outskirts of the valley, polished tesla, axes and jewelry were made. In the sixth horizon, a dagger was found that was treated with squeezing retouching, i.e., by chopping off thousands of miniature scales from the surface of the dagger, with a bone handle in the form of a twisted snake. This is an unsurpassed work of ancient art. Even after 3,500 years, such daggers were found only in the tombs of the pharaohs.

Photo 9.

A lot of all kinds of jewelry, especially women's beads, made of precious and colored stones made of tin and copper. There are baskets with blush, cosmetic spatulas, obsidian mirrors, fixed in the handle with a lime mass. Often graceful Mediterranean shells with ocher mixed with some creams were placed in women's graves. At this time, women's cosmetics appeared. Not even a needle passed through the holes in the obsidian beads.

Photo 10.

A lot of dishes made of wood. These are flat dishes with figures, figured ledges-handles, and cups on legs, and boxes of various shapes with tight-fitting lids. There are many bone and horn vessels, wicker and leather containers. “Fine fabrics,” writes Mellart, “possibly woolen, were of such high quality that they would not have made a modern weaver ashamed.”

Photo 11.

Note that all residents had a high level of well-being. After all, it was the Stone Age, and the division into rich and poor has not yet taken place. There was no material difference yet, although trade was conducted, and it would seem that accumulating wealth to the successful “merchant” was not difficult. It was probably an exchange, not a modern type of trade. Although they exchanged, apparently, not only goods, but also ideological ideas. Indeed, in Chatal-Guyuk there were already real temples, and there were a lot of them.

Chatal-Guyuk perishes at the very beginning of the third environmental crisis (the second half of the VI-V millennium BC).

Photo 12.

The culture of Chatal-Hyuk has caused considerable discussion about its origin. Various interpretations were given to her.Of course, researchers could not get around the problem of the origin of the people who committed the "Neolithic revolution" in the Middle East. Today, evidence is found - albeit still insignificant - of the continuous development of the Anatolian culture from the Upper Paleolithic to the Neolithic, that is, the Chatal-Hyuk phenomenon was born on local soil. A major role in studying the origin of this phenomenon was played by the discoveries of Professor C. Kekten and Dr. E. Bostanchi in the Antalya region, which showed that Upper Paleolithic art of the Western European type existed in Anatolia. Some anthropologists believe that the oldest remains of the people of the Euro-African race, recorded in the burial grounds of Anatolia, are the descendants of the European Upper Paleolithic man, the one who created the magnificent paintings of Altamira.

Photo 13.

In addition to reliefs, often reaching a height of two or more meters, Chatal-Hyuk shrines are decorated with magnificent frescoes - probably the oldest in the world. These drawings, painted with red, pink, white, cream and black paint on still raw, bleached or pinkish-coated walls, were made in the VI millennium BC.

In the vivid, extremely diverse paintings of Chatal-Hyuk, the ancient cultural traditions of Stone Age hunters and the new customs and beliefs of the first farmers were reflected. Some scenes recreate hunting scenes where numerous beaters surround a wild bull trapped or overtake a racing deer.

Often there are paintings with the image of human hands. They are made on a red background or painted with red, pink, gray or black paint, completely covering the walls or forming a border around the central compositions. Many patterns of geometric paintings, often very complex ones, reminiscent of colorful Anatolian carpets, were also found. In other paintings magic symbols are found - hands, horns, crosses. Some murals seem to be entirely composed of symbols, most of which remain incomprehensible to us. At the same time, picturesque images are combined with relief, carved, etc. Among the fifty sanctuaries of Chatal-Hyuk it is impossible to find two similar to each other, and their diversity is simply amazing.

Many plots of murals are obviously associated with the afterlife cult. On the walls of two large sanctuaries are depicted, for example, huge vultures that torment decapitated human bodies. A scene from another sanctuary depicts a man armed with a sling and defending himself against two vultures.

Photo 14.

Photo 15.

Photo 16.

Photo 17.

Culture

There is a wide variety of art forms that can be found in the traditional Australian Aboriginal religion. The oldest surviving art forms are engravings of animals or people on the walls of caves. In New South Wales, large sculptures on trees were found.

There are artifacts containing various abstract forms or animals (snakes and fish).

According to recent data, there are about 400,000 Aboriginal people, or about 2% of the total population of Australia. Despite the fact that they make up 500-600 different groups, the indigenous people have some unifying links. Among them are strong spiritual beliefs that connect them with the land, tribal culture.

Like other indigenous peoples, they have a complex colonial history. The songs illustrate Dream Time and other tales of the earth, while dances and drawings painted in the sand accompany oral tales.

In the Northern Territory, Aboriginal art includes:

  • sculpture
  • cave painting
  • cave drawings.

Rock paintings and paintings can be found in places of traditional aboriginal residence. Their music is very recognizable by the famous instrument - didgeridoo. It is a bamboo instrument about 5 feet long that emits a low vibrating hum.

History

Aborigines first arrived in Australia about 40,000 years ago. Then between Asia and Australia there was a land bridge. Between 3000-4000 years ago, Aborigines began using various stone tools. Over the past 2000 years, the population has grown significantly and adapted to the various climatic conditions of the continent.

The first Europeans settled in Australia in 1788, when there were about 1 million aborigines in it. The presence of Europeans had a detrimental effect on the indigenous population. By 1850, 96% of the natives of southeast Australia had died from disease, exhausting labor, and murder.

Nubian civilization (2000 - 1000 BC)

Nubia was located on the territory of modern Egypt, Sudan and South Sudan. This African culture is the first large state of Inner Africa. The ancient Egyptians called their land the kingdom of Kush. You can safely call Kush the successor of the kingdom of Kerma, which competed on equal terms with Egypt, and was eventually conquered by one of the Egyptian pharaohs. Kush also clashed with his northern neighbor. During constant wars, they alternately seized each other's territories.

Now Nubia is covered with desert, but in the past there were fertile lands that were fed by the spilled Nile. The state was rich in minerals, gold and copper. It is noteworthy that Nubian women had almost equal rights with men. They could become politicians, and also participated in trade and war. The periods of the Kush kingdom are known when queens were at the head of the state.

What is now on the site of the former civilization

The most ancient civilization on earth is led by an Australian. Its representatives - the natives - live in Australia today. This ancient civilization lasted continuously for 40-60 thousand years.

Civilization of the Sumerians

Scientists learned about the civilization of ancient Sumerians only from excavations.

Origin of the people

Sumerian civilization originated in the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, called Mesopotamia. The lower part of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers was known as Sumer. The beginning of this civilization dates back to about 5000 BC.

The language of the Sumerians did not belong to the languages ​​of the Semitic peoples surrounding Sumer. It was an agglutinating language of a separate language group, which had no analogues. After the conquest of the Sumerians by Akkadians, their spoken language began to die out and replaced by Akkadian.

The most ancient civilizations on Earth had, like the modern world, their own language, written language and culture

However, the Sumerian religious language continued to be used in writing until the birth of Christ.

Writing

The Sumerians made a significant contribution to the field of writing. Their system is known as cuneiform writing. The Sumerians used more than 350 characters. Since the upper part of each letter was sharp and wedge-shaped, the term cuneiform writing arose.

The scribes pressed soft clay tablets with a sharp reed style and left wedge-shaped traces. The tablets were dried in the sun. The cuneiform writing of the Sumerians was read from right to left. Thousands of cuneiform tablets are found in the Sumerian library.

Their total number in the cities of Sumeria is more than 30,000.

Religion of the people

Sumerians built temples in the center of each city-state to worship gods and goddesses. They were known as Ziggurats (Heavenly Hill). These temples were round and multi-story. The Sumerians professed polytheism. The most popular deity was the goddess Ishtar: she was the daughter of Anu, the deity of heaven.

Peasants brought grain and water in a pot or fat tail. They prayed to the gods for rain and grain. Priests played a prominent role in the religious life of the Sumerians. They believed in dreams and signs and claimed to predict future events. The Sumerians believed in the afterlife.

According to their ideas, after death, the soul falls into a dark place.

Culture

Ziggurats in many cities are monuments of architecture. Builders used burnt bricks for the construction of various structures. Ziggurats were buildings up to 7-8 floors. Below was the widest floor, and the upper ones narrowed one after another.

Architects maintained proportions for columns, arches, arches and domes.

Among the Sumerians, potters, jewelers, sculptors who produced high-quality products became famous. Decorated clay pots, seals with carvings and drawings, jewelry with beautiful patterns testify to the great artistic skill of their authors.

The Sumerians had deep knowledge in mathematics and astrology. The priests, remaining in the chamber of Ziggurat, watched the movement of planets and stars. Thus, they could predict good or bad times and were quite advanced in astrology.

The Sumerians adopted their own calendar to determine the months and years.

They divided one year into 12 months. Each month was divided into 30 days. However, their calendar was incorrect, so after a few years they introduced an extra 13th month to adjust 5 extra days a year. Despite this, neighboring nations adopted the Sumerian calendar after corrections.

The numeral system in Sumeria was adopted with a base of 60. This was included in their arithmetic. One hour was divided into 60 minutes, and 1 minute into 60 seconds.

A special contribution of the Sumerians to the history of mankind was the wheel. It accelerated the progress of their civilization. Thanks to the wheel, the potter could make pots of various shapes and sizes. Carts on wheels accelerated trade on land. The Sumerians maintained trade relations with the countries of Asia and Egypt.

The city of Ur has become a center of international trade.

The Sumerians imported mainly food grain, while they themselves exported:

History

The civilization of the Sumerians became mature in 3500 BC. They built many cities. Nipur, Lagash, Ur and Kish were their 4th main settlements. In each city-state, power belonged to the king. The main place of political activity of the city was Ziggurat (Sumerian temple).

The Sumerian priests were the chief architects of the administration. The king ruled the state on their advice.

The first king of the Sumerians was Gilgamesh. Then his dynasty was replaced by several others. The ideas of the Sumerians regarding management, writing, art, architecture, literature, science became known from archaeological finds in Mesopotamia. The history of the Sumerians ended about 2500 BC.

What is now on the site of the former civilization

The most ancient civilizations on earth have lost the second of them - the Sumerian. It ended with the invasion of the invaders from Akkad around 2500 BC. But the contribution of the Sumerians to the culture of the world remained significant. Currently, the places of their bygone civilization are in Iraq.

Ancient Chinese civilization (2070 BC - 500 years BC)

The Chinese are not only the largest nation in the world, but also one of the oldest. The "Yellow River" is considered the cradle of Chinese culture, so the name "Yellow River civilization" can often be found.

The birth of Chinese statehood and culture took place between the Yangtze and Yellow River. In 2070 BC e. a number of small Chinese villages were taken under control by a single government - the Xia Dynasty was born. It was founded by Yu the Great - one of the few Chinese emperors who was awarded the epithet Great. He spent more than 10 years of his life to “tame” the Yellow River, which caused irreparable harm to the villages, spilling from the shores. He was respected by the local population, which allowed the future emperor to create his dynasty.

The reign of the Xia Dynasty of China lasted more than 400 years, until in 1600 BC. e. its last representative, Emperor Jie, was not overthrown by the Tang, which gave rise to the Shang Dynasty. Since then, the Chinese dynasties of rulers succeeded each other until the last of them collapsed in 1912. The last dynasty of the rulers of ancient China is the Han Dynasty.

Civilization of Ancient Egypt

The ancient Egyptians are known as the indigenous inhabitants of their area. 5000 BCfound items manufactured with a fairly high level of technology were dated. This suggests that the ancient Egyptians from prehistoric times lived in the area of ​​finds.

The ancient Egyptian language belongs to the Afro-Asian language group, classified as Semitic-Hamitic.

Cretan Minoan civilization (2600 - 1400 years BC)

Minoan called the ancient Greek civilization of the Bronze Age, located on the island of Crete. The main city of the island was Knossos, where archaeologists found the ruins of the Minoan palace. The first person to discover traces of an ancient civilization in Crete was Arthur Evans.

The Minoans were renowned as experienced mariners, reaching the shores of many countries of the eastern Mediterranean for trade. Their main products were pottery and olive oil, skillfully produced by the inhabitants of Crete. They traded these goods for gold, copper and silver.

The causes of the collapse of the Minoan culture are still the subject of controversy among historians. Some believe that the Minoans were influenced by the growth of Mycenaean settlements, which absorbed the culture of the former. Others argue that natural disasters are to blame. Note that this is the only European civilization from the list of 10 ancient cultures of the world.

Civilization of Ancient Egypt (3100 - 332 years BC)

It will not be an exaggeration to call Egyptian civilization the most famous and popular culture in the world. It originated on the banks of the Nile River - the longest river on the planet. The ancient Egyptians were several centuries ahead of their time, having achieved tremendous success in the fields of medicine, architecture and art. Their culture still affects society. Among the achievements of the Egyptians, mention is made of mummification. This process of preserving the bodies of the dead in the form of mummies is called embalming. Only the rulers of Egypt or representatives of the elite could afford to save their bodies after death.

And also Ancient Egypt is famous for its pyramids built for the burial of mummies. In the pyramids were found the last refuge of the great pharaohs and members of their families. The complexity of the design of the pyramids suggests that the Egyptians paid great attention to the afterlife. The largest pyramid is the Cheops pyramid. Its construction took about 2 decades, thousands of slaves worked on the creation, and more than 2 million blocks of limestone were used as materials.

Without a doubt, the Egyptians "transferred" humanity to a new qualitative level.

By the way, you will definitely like an interesting article on thebiggest.ru about the highest pyramids on the planet.

Indian civilization (3300 - 1300 BC)

In some sources, Indian civilization may go in third place in antiquity, after Egypt. However, scientists were able to prove that the culture of the peoples of the Indus Valley developed earlier than the ancient Egyptian. This civilization is also called Harappan, and its origin occurred almost 5300 years ago. Indian civilization reached its peak in 2600 BC. e. It stretched for many kilometers along the Indus Valley, located in the modern states of Pakistan, India and Afghanistan. Archaeologists managed to find the ruins of the ancient cities of the Harappan civilization, among which the largest was Mohenjo-Daro. It is located in modern Pakistan and literally translates as "the barrow of the dead." This settlement is considered one of the first cities in the history of mankind. The size of the city was approximately 200 hectares, which is 5 times the size of the Vatican.

Residents of the Harappan state have developed an effective drainage system that protects settlements from floods, built many public baths and fresh water wells. The study of Mohenjo-Daro allowed historians to answer many questions about the structure of the social and economic life of Indian civilization.

Civilization of Ancient Mesopotamia (3500 - 500 years BC)

The oldest civilization in the world - Mesopotamia, was located on the territory of modern Iraq, Kuwait and Syria. It is rightfully considered the cradle of civilization, since it was in Mesopotamia that the first cities and empires appeared. The Greek word Mesopotamia means "between the rivers", so you can often find the name culture Mesopotamia. Ancient Mesopotamia originated between the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, surrounded on both sides by the Persian Gulf and Asia Minor.

The region is part of the Fertile Crescent, rich land ideal for farming. Such conditions allow the development of many civilizations. It is worth talking about just a few cultures that succeed each other in Mesopotamia. Among them are the Babylonian, Sumerian, Akkadian and Assyrian civilizations. The most ancient was the kingdom of Sumer, which later merged with Akkad. The Sumerians are the leaders in the invention of the wheel and the construction of the ship. This allows them to trade with other nations, which ultimately forces them to come up with a calculation system to account for purchases and sales.

Due to the fertility of soils, the territory of Mesopotamia has always been a "tidbit" for the conquerors. Mesopotamia passed into the possession of various peoples, which had a positive effect on the development of mankind, since the Sumerian-Akkadian culture quickly spread and influenced future civilizations.

Finally

Historians will be presented with many more discoveries, and we are sure that traces of even more ancient civilizations that were at the origins of the formation of humanity will be found. And now we want to know your opinion, and also ask you to share your thoughts or knowledge about the oldest socio-political formations. You can write your thoughts in the comments to this article.

84 COMMENTS

A good article, I think civilizations are systematized here whose existence is proved by excavations. Why they didn’t remember our ancestors, I suppose that he is specially silent about this in world literature. I suppose that Russia inherited Hyperborea, a powerful state with which everyone was forced to reckon. They will always be afraid of us, it is inherited from them with genes.

People made spears and bows from branches, did not know how to move on water, lived in clans, and here RRRAZ! Gathered in one country! TWO! Learned writing! THREE!. They began to enclose the city with stone (.) Walls, invented the wheel and ships.
Something is wrong with the story, right?

The main thing, and all this for several thousand years! And before that, tens of thousands of years vegetated in ignorance)))
What story are you talking about?

You probably forgot about the Margian civilization, and it is one of the five places of origin of civilizations and one of the oldest in the world. I recommend reading the studies of Academician Sarinidi.

Alexander and Vera Izmailovs. Read our books on ancient civilizations. * Blog: _http: //zovvera.blogspot.com

Study the Secret Doctrine, everything is described there, all questions about cosmo - and anthropogenesis will disappear by themselves. But there will be a huge bunch of new ones. This is where the most gusto is ... Expansion of consciousness ...

Not worth it. At best, it will be a killed time for a not very interesting fantasy. In the worst case, the brain will be obsessed with occultism.

Something is mentioned in Tibet, but they are silent that, let’s say, in Nirvana there are representatives of the previous FOUR Civilizations, our Fifth)))
Asuras
Atlanta
Lemurians
Borea

Here, and indeed in the article, it is necessary to clearly divide each root race into its civilizations and sub-races, so it will be more correct. This article does not describe all the civilizations of our fifth root race, and only ...

Fifty-two thousand years ago, on the basis of the knowledge of the previous civilization deciphered by me, a social formation was created that developed 28 thousand years
in progressive civilizational development and reached perfection ...........................
further 12 thousand years ago there was a distortion of one phrase from the basic rules and
everything began to change, the lower developmental tribes were attached to the perfect people and ruined it with their warlikeness and multiplicity, with the ability to deftly pretend and impersonate, and here also nature was compassionate ............. ..

According to the Old Russian calendar, now 7527 is the year from the creation of the world in the Heavenly Temple. In astrophysics, there is the concept of “Sky Colors”, this is the coordinate system: Aquarius = Leo, Taurus-Scorpio. Now the axis of the equinoxes approximately coincides with the axis of the Aquarius-Leo color schemes, and the axis of the solstices Taurus-Scorpio, which coincides with the points of Aphelion and Perihelion. If we are mentally transported to 7500 years ago, then we will fall at a time when the vernal equinox passed from the constellation Gemini to the constellation Taurus. The Taurus constellation sector is famous for the fact that in it, according to the Heavenly Meridian, there is the constellation Tsar Orion and the Great Dog with the star Tsaritsa Sirius. Heavenly Temple - The sector of heaven where these cosmic Deities live. In our historical time, Orion and Sirius occupied the highest position relative to the Earth's horizon. The belt of Orion intersected the belt of the celestial equator. Tsar Peter the First tied the Russian New Year and Orthodox Christmas to the point of Perihelion (January 3), when the Earth and the Sun are as close as possible to each other. This is a more fundamental quantity than the axis of the Solstices. The axes of the Solstices and Equinoxes shift annually by about 50 arc seconds per year relative to the constellations of the Ecliptic. Axes Kolyurov are in one place.

Hebrew-go and lie, Yiddish - come on from here and lie (again)

In my opinion, Dmitry is right: Peter the 1st introduced the modern calendar in Russia, before that the calendar was conducted from the Creation of the World, and even earlier - from the Day of the Great Chill. The presence of a widely used calendar indicates the existence of civilization. The fact that this civilization is currently revealing itself in small excavations that no one has tried to systematize and generalize does not indicate that Russian civilization did not exist!

100% in favor, and do not let us know the truth, our worship of the West, which helped our rulers, in particular, the -988 baptism of Rus (Prince Vladimir) and Peter1 - the new chronology, and imposed on us the Radzivilov chronology of 1715, I think, these are the main points when our ancestors lost their identity and the actual chronology is destroyed

The older the people, the closer they are to the monkey.

But not Earthly, for example, the Phaetonian)))

They forgot about Ukrov, but this is, undoubtedly, number one. While they were digging the sea, tailed Sumerians ran on all fours. Why do world scientists not listen to Ukrainian? Some obscurantism ...

It is interesting, when they thought up this game on RENTV, they thought that it would go so far into the masses?) But many are being fueled by this.

Well, you are certainly not educated .... Atlantis is the oldest. I saw in the movie about Aquaman :)

Before Antarctica, there was Lemuria, and before that there were two more.

In general, the whole story, whoever writes it, is a description of events on its own behalf. History was written by people. They wrote as it was beneficial to them. It’s just stupid to argue. So I know that the most ancient civilization is Russia. No one can convince me. And if I were in power, then in all history textbooks this would be written. That's all. Russia was so great that everyone else was just a pot-bellied little thing. Therefore, now everyone hates everything Russian so much. There is evidence that Jesus was actually called Radomir. Genghis Khan was a Russian prince who raised the people against Christianity, forcibly imposed in Russia. In short, you can write any nonsense. Give a pen and paper. I'll write this to you. After a thousand years they dig up and say this is the truth. ”

I have the same attitude towards history.
We definitely cannot say how it was 200-300 years ago, except for the well-known facts, and several thousand years ago, especially.
But what I always wonder is how the ancients knew how to work with stone. We don’t even know how.

Pisaka if you descended from monkeys, then do not drop other People on your own.

I wonder, where are the ancient Greeks and Sumerians with the Scythians?

About the Sumerians written. Greeks are not the most ancient civilization. However, Crete-Mycenaean Greece is the first stage in the history of ancient Greece. So we can say what is written about her. Scythians did not create civilization. Their culture is not as ancient as those described here.

And you can ask a question.
If, 3 thousand years ago, China and Russia fought, then in what pre-packs is this displayed? Or - I know, but vile expectations destroyed everything?

3000 years ago there was neither Russia nor China as it is now. The Principality of Zhou fought with the ancestors of the Huns. And on the territory of Russia, completely different peoples lived.

In the foothills of the Kuznetsk Alatau under the village of Chebaki, as early as the 80s, ruins of the fortress were found, 10-12 thousand years BC, the age was determined by trash pits, the inhabitants threw the remains of food-bones of mammoths, cave bears, woolly rhinos. The question is, what kind of force forced the handful of hunters to unite for construction, and who were their opponents who drove so many ancient people to the tops of the mountains? But it looks like a whole chain of fortresses looks like garrisons of 200-300 people (no traces of civilian life were found there)
Official archeology is silent, since all this does not fit into the canons of today's science.

One fortress (and this is still said loudly) is not yet civilization. It only means that here, at this time, people lived.

In fact, in order to build a fortress, people had to be organized. And the garrison had to be fed. According to current estimates, 300 people (5% of the population — the size of the armed forces) have a population of about 6,000 — too much for primitive tribes. And there are several fortresses .... that is, it turns out an organization such as a union of tribes, or the state. But only such structures are created as opposed to something, and since obviously defensive goals, then the opponents were much stronger.

The fortress in Chebaki does not belong to any civilization, it is the Okunev archaeological culture of the Bronze Age. Of course, it was built not 10-12 thousand years ago, but in the second millennium BC. And of course, fortified settlements are not a sign of civilization.

Who will agree to accept this and somehow explain. Imagine how many historians, institutes, doctors of sciences, academies we have, how many people defended dissertations, how many works are written, how many prizes, salaries, studies, how many departments are open, how many people are “fed” with the story that we hear .. from the story that we vaccinated. And here everything needs to be changed. What for the truth? And who needs it? 12 people out of 1,000,000? Who lives with the topic HISTORY is definitely not needed. And 999,000 out of 1,000,000 are loans, an ass with work, a salary, new gadgets, new diet pills, the election of the best people in power and a million different crap .. but it’s definitely not some kind of excavation there ... I DO NOT NEED it is true. Not to anyone. NO WHO will change anything. Egypt is most ancient, well, at best, the Sumerians ... the rest is a blessing. Our Crimea. This is an axiom for science related to history.

Learn to write Vovka, a miracle!

In Kostenki and near the city of Zaraysk, an ancient man settled about 45 thousand years ago. From his stay, dwellings well built from the bones and tusks of a mammoth and animal skins were well preserved, some things, including clothes, darts, stone knives, spears, as well as jewelry and a figurine of a bison. The most numerous of all the ancient sites is the “cemetery” Sungir is considered to be, where for 25 thousand years the skeletons of an adult man, as well as two children: a boy and a girl were stored in the ground.

This is just an ancient parking lot. For civilization, this is too little.

Lord, what a tin in the comments. How do people want to promote any nonsense, if only to feel great.
Gentlemen, great nations are not made by antiquity, but achievements. With the achievements of the Russian people, everything is in order. He does not need to invent a fake story with the Arias and Atlantis.

Nonsense, to think that achievements come from no where! Also, the Lord was punished.

Is everything okay with the achievements of the Russian people? Oh well.

The problem of the disappearance of ancient civilizations, neither in the perfection of technology, nor in the weakness of the armies, nor in the perfection of power. And in the internal moral degradation of the people in them. Satisfying basic human instincts such as hunger, cold (shelter) housing, it required submission to laws and authorities. And now the put forward program of raising the standard of living is essentially a program of corrupting a person’s spirit with comfort and convenience; a person has become neither a full-fledged person, but a slave cog in the mechanism of the state. Remember the legend about the Tower of Babel ... Man destroyed the Garden of Eden those animals and trees with which we had to coexist and interact. Instead, man created the great stone deserts (cities) in which he lives surrounded by dead idols (veshes), we forgot that we are the creatures of nature, and its most perfect creations, and our ancestors created man in close interaction with all living organisms (like microorganisms so and animals and plants) learned and recognized the laws of the creator of God and that God commanded us to live in peace with nature and himself.

Hush) Hush)) Russ great people .. But the truth is one. ))) All of you are biased. I can prove it. )) You all associate Anatolia with Turkey)) The very understanding of Turkey has existed for 100 years.)) Look at the root of others)

Archaeologists in Bulgaria have discovered the oldest prehistoric city,
found to date.
It is believed that a walled city near the modern city of Provadia is an important center
for the production of salt.
Its discovery in northeastern Bulgaria can explain the huge gold treasure found about 40 years ago.
Archaeologists believe that about 350 people lived in the city, and its age is from 4700 to 4200 years BC.

The Cheops Pyramid was built over 2 decades by thousands of slaves ... 2,000,000 multi-ton blocks were laid. We consider: in a year 365 days we multiply by 20 years we receive 7300 days. 2,000,000 blocks divided by 7300 days, we get 274 blocks. That is, the builders, seven days a week, had to lay 274 multi-ton blocks per day.
This is the "Wise" judgment of people who, without thinking, take information from the same "verified" sources. Long live the "geniuses" of science who are proud of their descent from a monkey.

Wikipedia says in black and white that the construction speed was approximately 1 block in 2 minutes, which corresponds to your calculations. Give information from truly "verified" sources, we will only be happy.

again Wikipedia ... immediately got sick even of something to dispute ...
What is this ?! After all, there were people ... and suddenly all became nerds! - the most gorgeous phrase, I think ...
Himself in his profession for 18 years and really agree with her one hundred percent ...
soon they will write directly - as Uncle Vasya from the 35th apartment said ...
And so I’ve been delving around for about 15 years in history ... for example, the Americans seriously seriously recognize on the scientific level that at first people crossed the isthmus from Siberia, and not vice versa ... the Turks believe that they came from the territory of Altai ... the Indians have a lot in common the folklore is with us, although they also seem to be like 5,000, we have a lot of similar names, well, etc.
and our old chronology really does not bother me, because not just the creation of the world, but s.M.Z.Kh.

Good. Wikipedia is not an option. What will we refer to?

“At first, people crossed the isthmus from Siberia, and not vice versa.” And what surprised you so much? For some reason, I didn’t know another version ...

Even modern technology doesn’t allow you to lay such machines so fast.

I believe that the pyramids and other works of stone are much older than Egyptian civilization. And all that remained of them was appropriated by a later civilization.
When I saw ideally polished sarcophagi from black basalt (one of the hardest stones on earth), as well as statues, monuments, pl. etc., covered with ideal lines of drawings, that is, absolutely mirror symmetry, incredibly accurate in terms of geometry, angles, parallels, etc. plus everything, some sarcophagi were made from a single piece of basalt weighing from 60-100 tons ... then I understood the absurdity of modern history and historical facts that speak of copper and bronze tools. Even with steel and modern cutting tools controlled by computers, it is almost impossible to do this.
It seems that all the products from the basalt of that culture were laser cut with micron precision.

Without modern construction and road equipment, such blocks are not that in 2 minutes, generally it is not possible to lay

No one talks about the descent of man from a monkey - even Darwin (he said: “From proto-monkey.” There was a division into monkeys and hominids - homo. And your correct calculations only speak of your correct conclusion regarding the origin of the pyramids.

Yes, there is no answer to my question.

And what was on the territory of Russia? emptiness? I'm talking about Ren TV. someone was, and whom all the great conquerors feared, they conquered Europe, Asia, India, why were they afraid to come here to us?

Yes, they were afraid, there Sasha the Great, who the Macedonian put his head on him, tapped him, he went to India

They somehow forgot about Europe. But on the open spaces from the Danube to the Dnieper during the Eneolithic period Tripoli civilization developed. It existed in chronology from about 5,400 to 2,700 BC.
Yes, there was no written language, but Trypillians already built proto-cities in which from 7 to 10 thousand inhabitants lived. For that time, these are huge settlements. Clay two-story buildings of Trypillians are now explored throughout their settlement. Another fact. They are the first farmers in Europe.
The Trypillians also had their scientific knowledge, they already perfectly understood what the Universe means.
And material culture. If we compare the drawings on ceramics of Trypillians and residents of the Indus and Ganges basin, then they have a lot in common. We were taught that civilization came from the East, but let's look a little further in chronology. Tripoli did not disappear anywhere, but left West to East when the climate in Europe became more severe. Under their influence, Indo-Aryan civilizations began to emerge ...

Yushchenko was shattering to the whole world that Ukrainians had passed from them, and here there are dry data confirmed by archeology.

You don’t know at all the stories, but the weather changes from Europe have been wandering. So the changes were everywhere and not only Europeans do you think the only ones wandered. Even the article writes about the disappearance of civilization during climate change. Who is husband it began around the 6-7th century BC. And if your math is bad, I’ll write you a conclusion in the Middle East, as in all of Asia, civilizations have already passed one change of dynasties. It is approximately that India had all their development before the arrival of the Indo-Europeans. Indo-Europeans brought only castes, well, then the Iron Age began, certainly not having reached the Indian Indo-Europeans, they adopted (copied the technology).

Anatoly, they wrote a text so incoherent that I’m not able to understand what you are writing about ...

And where is the “chronological order”?

The most ancient civilization is the civilization of Tibet, together with the theological tradition of Bon, created by the Indo-European - the Great Son of the Tajik people Tonpa Shenrab Miwo. On the basis of the Tibetan tradition of Bon, Indo-Europeans - the ancient arias of the Seven Rivers Indus created the Vedic tradition (which became the basis of Hinduism) and Indian civilization (called the Egyptians who arranged pilgrimages there - the country of the gods Punt, and the Greeks - Atlantis).Indo-Europeans (ancient Aryans), who migrated from Indian civilization, first established settlements on the island of Dilmun (present-day Bahrain), and then the Sumerian civilization in Mesopotamia (Ur became its first secular city, next to which the priests built the temple city of Eris). Therefore, Abraham, as a symbol of the formation of Judaism, was not born in Ur, but in Eris. The Indo-European Sumer was conquered by the Eastern Semites of the kingdom of Elam, who founded the Akkadian Empire. The subsequent history of Mesopotamia was due to the confrontation between the Eastern Semites (who founded the Akkadian Empire, and then the Babylonian Empire) and the Western Semites, whose city-states (Mari, Kadesh, Ugarit and others) were united in the kingdom of Yamhad, from which the so-called Hyksos - Western Semites who conquered two-thirds of Egypt during the Transition, and then founded the Assyrian Empire.
Bull Apis (a symbol of the Vedic tradition) was brought to Egypt from India (from the Indian civilization of the ancient Aryans). The Egyptians significantly improved the Vedic tradition of the ancient Aryans by building, under the great pharaoh-reformer Snofru, instead of an obsolete caste society, a society of good will and equal opportunity (a free society in which there were no slaves) with an effective management pyramid, updated by independent arbiters and overseeing the construction of the pyramid a triangle and an equal opportunity to build a career for all Egyptians. Liberals called slavery in Egypt their inadmissibility of building and updating the management pyramid, which remained the prerogative of the Egyptian priests. The history of Egypt is the history of the confrontation between the Egyptians (who inhabited mainly Upper Egypt) and the Western Semites (who inhabited mainly Lower Egypt). The Western Semites repeatedly reigned in Egypt or brought to power the Egyptian pharaohs dependent on themselves. The most famous Western Semitic pharaohs of Egypt were Cheops, his son Chefren, the pharaohs of the beginning of the XIX dynasty: Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, Seti II. After the death of Ramses II and the coming to power of the Egyptians, many of the Western Semites, together with the Egyptian collaborating priests (collectively called Moses), built an alternative management pyramid for the Western Semites (through whose support the Western Semites reigned in Egypt) because of the crimes they committed (named generalized by the murder of the Egyptian by Moses) they fled from Egypt to their congeners - the western Semites of the Edomites, and then to Canaan. The war of Egypt with the Indo-European Hetian kingdom under Ramses II was the desire of the Western Semites, using the Egyptians, to expand their influence in the Ancient World and weaken their long-standing opponents - Indo-Europeans. Similarly, at present, Ukrainians are used to confront Russia and weaken Russia.
The Semites migrated from their historical homeland - from the Ethiopian Highlands. Western Semites - Amhara and Tigrinya peoples lived in the territory of present Ethiopia, and the tiger - in the territory of present Eritrea. Eastern Semites - the Oromo people lived in what is now Somalia. From ancient times, the Western and Eastern Semites were at enmity with each other, this confrontation has survived to the present time in the form of a confrontation between the Western social system built by liberals of West Semitic origin and the pseudo-communist social system created by liberals of Eastern Semitic origin, of which K. Marx was a representative. The West Semitic language - Hebrew (descended from Aramaic, and earlier from the Amharic language), and the East Semitic language - Yiddish (descended from Akkadian, and even earlier from the Oromo language) did not receive the status of the second state language.
Nubia (inhabited by Nubians), located in the territory of present-day South Sudan, must be distinguished from the West Semitic kingdom of Kush with its capital in the territory of present-day North Sudan (with the Cushitic pyramids of the hierarchy of clans of the Western Semites, one of which is depicted on a one-dollar bill in the USA). The West Semitic kingdom of Kush confronted Egypt with the West Semitic kingdom of Yamhad. The preserved Egyptian tablet found by archaeologists shows representatives of the main peoples of Egypt: Egyptian, Semite, Libyan and Nubian. The confrontation between the Western Semites of the kingdom of Kush and the Nubians of Nubia has survived to this day in the form of a confrontation between Northern Sudan and South Sudan.
Judaism was created on the basis of the theological heritage of the Indo-Europeans of Sumer and the Egyptians of Ancient Egypt (liberals received from the Egyptians and Sumerians what they and their fathers did not have), and then other Abrahamic religions: Christianity and Islam.

Slavery is not a Goodwill Society .. The life of peoples has led only a part of peoples to a different choice .. Ancient cultures
it’s not always possible to call it Civilization .. The antagonists have perished over these centuries .. They couldn’t solve the main contradiction .. Slides to fierce wars and almost always quarreled .. Others didn’t go at all ..
They just learned to regulate the way of life in society .. But
also did not change their significance, relying mainly on military force .. Neglecting Culture and its capabilities is also a dead end ..

It would be better if the author “did not drive a gag” of the type: “Human evolution began about 55 million years ago. First, the development of the monkeys takes place. The links go through in the following order: gorillas, chimpanzees, and later humans, ”and immediately moved on to TOP 10. This shows him not understanding evolution as such and the laws of genetics. Neither gorillas nor chimpanzees are human ancestors (he does not know the definition of “human” either), they are offshoots from a common root with humans.

that's right, i missed that stupid paragraph. Corrected, added an illustration of the evolutionary paths of primates!

Thank you for your reply! If we wrote this in an article, I’m sure it would have started in the comments. That is why we write about generally accepted historical facts. In general, yes, there is something in it.

You can read an article about the most amazing finds of archaeologists. Many go against existing historical theories.

And of course there are a lot of such materials.

OBSERVATION OF RENTV OF SUCH MINDS AND ABOUT ANCIENT SLAVAN OBSERVED)))
YOU WILL ALREADY TELL ME AND MAJOR CREATED AND SHOULD ONE, NOT PERUNA)))

Just as Slavic God as Perun, you don’t know much yet, and rent has nothing to do with it. Learn the ancient Slavic language and you will understand everything.

AZ, BEECHES, LEAD THIS YOU WILL ACCOUNT AN ANCIENT SLAVIC LANGUAGE ..... ))))
GIVE ME IT FOR STUDYING SOMETHING I HAVE NOT FINDED AT THE HISTORY OF HIM ALSO IN THE PALOGRAPHY COURSE))))

Do you own Old Slavic? But linguists, fools, rack their brains - they reconstruct some kind of Pre-Slavic ...

Arkaim and neighboring settlements are not related to the Slavs, unfortunately. This is an Indo-Iranian culture close to the Scythians.

And is it nothing that the Slavic languages ​​belong to the Indo-European group? Like Iranian and Sanskrit.

It is also worth noting that, in particular, the Russian language is most similar to Sanskrit and has a logical justification of the meanings of words, unlike other Indo-European languages ​​- this is a fact.

Nevertheless, Arkaim does not belong to the Slavs

In the days of Arkaim there was neither Indo, nor even Iranian culture. Yes, we are the Scythians.

We are not related to the Scythians, at least to the "classical" ones. In all Scythian burials that were examined for haplogroups, they found R1a - z93, and Slavs with haplogroup R1a have snipes z 280 and M458 (conditionally “East Slavic” and “West Slavic”, respectively). But the Tatars, Tajiks, Indians of the haplogroup R1a have just snip Z93.
Scandinavian men with the haplogroup R1a have their own snip z282, which Russians do not meet or almost never meet. So Norman theory has nothing to do with history, this is a stupidly propagandistic historical myth, originally launched by Swedish historians to justify its right to seize Novgorod and Pskov lands.

Koooo-ko-ko-ko-ko.
Prince Ubo Scythian Slovene and Rus ...
And from that time the newcomers of Scythia began to be called Slovenes, and a certain river, which fell into Ilmer, was nicknamed in the name of the wife of Slovenia Shelon.
According to the imagination of the time of this desolation, I hear Scythian inhabitants about the fugitives of Slovenia about their forefather’s land.
According to the imagination of the time of this desolation, I hear the Scythian inhabitants about the fugitives of Slovenia about the land of their forefather, as if lying empty and not bregom to anyone, and about this zhalishashi velmi and beginning to think in themselves how to inherit their land from their father. And the packs came from the Danube many of them without a number, with them the Scythians and Bulgarians and foreigners went to the land of Slovenian and Ruskuyu, and the gray-haired packs near Lake Ilmerya and renewing the city in a new place, from the old Slovensk down Volkhov like a field and more, and the rogue, Novgorod the Great.

Are there links to specific sources?

Not bad, but not without flaws.
Let's start with America. Most researchers believe that the Olmecs invented writing, and the Mayans adopted it. However, there are those who consider them one civilization.
In China. Before Xia, on the coast of the Yellow Sea, the remains of stone fortresses that had been functioning for more than one hundred years were found. So it is necessary to agitate this civilization.
According to Indian civilization. In Central Asia, they found the city washed away by Amu Darya during the time of Harappa. Of course, this can be considered one civilization, and Central Asian can be distinguished.
According to Mesopotamia - until the Sumerians (Erbins) there existed a civilization discovered still by Woolley under the sediment of river silt.
Well, where is Palestine with the oldest known city - Jericho?

But nothing that the Russian calendar has more than 7500 years? Moreover, from the date of victory over the people of China. It turns out that the Slavic and Chinese civilizations are not appreciated in any way.

Well, they don’t want to admit it ... And there’s nobody to poke a nose ..

There is no such calendar

Egyptian civilization is at least half a millennium old. Thank God the Chinese are not too old, and some Chinese "scientists" claim that it is more than five millennia! There is falsification at the state level.

Chatal-Hyuk, Navarli, Göbekle-Tepe there are many more cities on the border land of Turkey, Syria and Iraq

Achievements of Ancient Civilizations

The achievements of the most ancient civilizations are shown in the table below:

Civilization nameLifetimeAchievementsNote
Australian40,000 yearsBrought the ancient African language to the continentAlmost died from the Europeans
SumerianMore than 2500 yearsWheel, writing (cuneiform writing)Was conquered by Akkadians and died
Ancient egyptianFrom prehistoric times to the presentAgriculture, pyramid construction, military
Ancient RomanFrom 753 BC until 476 A.D.

(Until 1453 - Byzantine Empire)

Writing, architecture, literature, engineering structures, military affairs, state organizationDied from barbarian attacks

Not all of the oldest civilizations on Earth have survived to this day. The civilization of Australian Aborigines lasted at least 40 thousand years. In an altered form, there is an ancient Egyptian civilization. The civilizations of the Sumerians and the ancient Romans perished.

Article design: E. Chaykina

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Watch the video: Ancient Civilizations - Powerful Video of Conflicts from the Past to the Present (April 2020).